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Can Commercial Airlines Achieve “One Level of Safety” By Embarking on a Program of “One Level of Training” ? What is the relationship between Training.

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Presentation on theme: "Can Commercial Airlines Achieve “One Level of Safety” By Embarking on a Program of “One Level of Training” ? What is the relationship between Training."— Presentation transcript:

1 Can Commercial Airlines Achieve “One Level of Safety” By Embarking on a Program of “One Level of Training” ? What is the relationship between Training and Safety in Commercial Air Operations? …….continued…….

2 How do we Get There From Here? How do we achieve a higher level of safety? We believe that an accident indicates a training shortfall.

3 Addressing training shortfalls Study NTSB Reports for Lessons to Learn Consider how to learn from that accident Listen to the Boots on the Ground Invest in staff for Safety and Training Depts. Confirm “Train like you fly” “Fly like you train” Every pilot should consider the reality that better pilots have crashed airplanes

4 Addressing training shortfalls Study NTSB Reports for Lessons to Learn Consider how to learn from that accident Listen to the Boots on the Ground Invest in staff for Safety and Training Depts. Confirm “Train like you fly” “Fly like you train” Every pilot should consider the reality that better pilots have crashed airplanes

5 Addressing training shortfalls Study NTSB Reports for Lessons to Learn Consider how to learn from that accident Listen to the Boots on the Ground Invest in staff for Safety and Training Depts. Confirm “Train like you fly” “Fly like you train” Every pilot should consider the reality that better pilots have crashed airplanes

6 Addressing training shortfalls Study NTSB Reports for Lessons to Learn Consider how to learn from that accident Listen to the Boots on the Ground Invest in staff for Safety and Training Depts. Confirm “Train like you fly” “Fly like you train” Every pilot should consider the reality that better pilots have crashed airplanes

7 Addressing training shortfalls Confirm “Train like you fly”

8 Addressing training shortfalls Confirm “Train like you fly” “Fly like you train”

9 Addressing training shortfalls Confirm “Train like you fly” “Fly like you train” Every pilot should consider the reality that better pilots have crashed airplanes

10 Integration of Training & Safety Safety Program feeds into Training Program Training Program remains current –Developed, Discovered, Reported by Safety Program –Risk based –Risk = severity multiplied by likelihood of occurrence

11 Methods of Integration Streams of Data: Risks, Hazards Aviation Safety Action Partnership ASAP FOQA Event Reports Regular Training – Safety Meetings Other data streams

12 Safety safety Training training Training-Safety Meetings ASAP FOQA AQP Event Rpts Safety Data Stream

13 Methods of Integration ASAP –Crew participation –Response to individual –Consideration and response to systemic risks and issues FOQA Event Reports Weekly Training – Safety Meetings Other data streams

14 Methods of Integration ASAPFOQA –How well the group is complying with procedures and limits –Is training producing desired results on line? Event Reports Weekly Training – Safety Meetings Other data streams

15 FOQA & ASAP It is one thing for crews to pass check rides (Can the crewmember do it?) It is quite another thing for crews to operate all year long according to procedures (Does the crewmember do it?) ASAP and FOQA help to determine

16 Methods of Integration ASAPFOQA Event Reports –Other observations, suggestions –Safety and SOP Weekly Training – Safety Meetings Other data streams

17 Methods of Integration ASAPFOQA Event Reports Weekly Training – Safety Meetings –Changes to SOP, syllabus, equipment –Review, rate risks Other data streams

18 Advance Qualification Program AQP: Formal FAA Training Program Allows and Encourages Risk input Risks from Safety Program Risks from Training Program Risks: rated by severity and likelihood Training emphasis influenced by risks Inputs: line checks and line ops audits

19 Advance Qualification Program Requires robust stream of information How well are line pilots doing as trained? What safety risks are out there currently? Initial Qual IQ and Continuing Qual CQ FAA oversight: Is Training Dept. training crews to meet the SOP & safety of line operations? Is Training Dept. training crews for check- rides, LOPC, LOFT?

20 Advance Qualification Program Seeks inputs from pilot association Sharing of Training Design Encourages Threat and Error Management training Puts heads together Change is expected

21 Postulation Achievement of safe commercial airline operations may have been achieved at the sample airline, due to the relationship between the Safety Program and the Training Program Just a good guess?

22 Mishap-free operations? More than 22 years Function of flight crewmember caused errors Training-Safety Relationship helped? Operations Perfect? No!

23 Human Factors Operations are not perfect! Humans are involved! Could an operations with humans ever be perfect? Can only hope to learn from mistakes Not make the same mistake a second time Safety Theory rewards quick corrections

24 Level of training related to Level of safety safety risks (hazards) evaluated by Safety risks & resolution integrated into level of importance and emphasis Integration takes place continuously

25 training Effectiveness? Does training prepare crews to pass various check rides? Does training prepare crews to be proficient in line operations?

26 Is there a direct & positive relationship between training & safety? NTSB cites lack of training as factor in many AAR’s AA 1525 Little Rock: crew failed to process weather risk data and failed to use all equipment Procedures not reinforced by training?

27 Is there a direct & positive relationship between training & safety? Toronto AF AB340 crew landed long on a non-grooved wet runway and hydroplaned Lack of complete training on runway characteristics? Subject not in SOP, therefore not trained?

28 Is there a direct & positive relationship between training & safety? Feb 2009 Colgan Buffalo D8 Q400 icing and stall mishap Incomplete training in icing and stall recovery training? Was lack of training sophistication?

29 Are training & safety related? Question of Logic: more proficient training more proficient training more sophisticated training more sophisticated training more substantive training more substantive training Would more training improve safety?

30 Observations, case by case Flight crew discouraged from making safety reports Safety reports are not acted on Safety reports are not responded to “Nothing Changes” “No One Listens” Safety Department is for “dress up purposes only”

31 Observations, case by case How can you have a safety input to training, if you don’t have a functioning Safety Department? if you don’t have a functioning Safety Department?

32 FAA Viewpoint Training for type rides require high instructional time, prime importance, basis for type and ATP ratings Why shouldn’t training also reflect the safety concerns of the airline line operations?

33 Level of Training Training defines competency in commercial airline operations Level of training determines level of competency

34 training syllabus based procedurally based support operations operations define training Safety supports operations by supporting Training

35 Practice and technique vs procedures? Practice from instructors to students, but it is not written down Techniques developed by line crew, but it is not written down Training should be procedure based Procedures are written and approved and current

36 Challenges of the Training- Safety relationship Communications Quick response Fix the problem

37 Advantage of Integration As risks are discovered, responded to and resolved Training can adjust SOP and training as part of the response Training response can be immediate as well This is a big difference

38 As the case may be Training to FAA standards only Risks of line operations not included Minimal training: icing, cumulative negative affects, TEM, CRM, windshear, runway conditions, convective weather, non-precision approaches, fatigue

39 As the case may be Safety Department minimal Safety feedback non-existent Adversarial relationship with crewmembers concerning safety issues Seldom address safety concerns, risks Fatigue due to long days commonplace ASAP, FOQA, Event Reports, AQP ?? Other data streams?

40 As the case may be Safety Department and Training Department seen as costs versus investments Safety and Training Functionality low Integration? Not considered

41 Everyone Loves Experience

42 …but nobody likes training

43 Experience?

44 Experienced Test Pilots

45 Lots of Experience in X-15

46 Experience? But how about the first time? Where did they get their training?


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