Presentation on theme: "Summary Skills Lecture. From the mouth of your Cambridge markers… Candidates who reproduced satisfactorily 80% or more of Woolgar’s arguments were judged."— Presentation transcript:
Summary Skills Lecture
From the mouth of your Cambridge markers… Candidates who reproduced satisfactorily 80% or more of Woolgar’s arguments were judged worthy of full marks! (Nov 2005) The good news is… Most of you are already scoring very well for the Summary Question…and today, we will review the skills to help you score full marks!!!
(1) Before attempting the summary, ask yourself… 1(a) What is the ____________ on the topic? This is important so that when we paraphrase the points in the passage, we will correctly reflect the writer’s stance. writer’s stand 20 min 1 (b) How much time do I have to write the summary?
Remember: ASAP Appreciate question requirements Select relevant information Arrange your material Paraphrase
( 2) (a) Underline/highlight the _______________ & __________________ Instructional keywords Topic keywords 2 (b) Note that there may be _____________ parts to the question. You must d evote equal emphasis to all parts of the Q. 2 or more ASAP: APPRECIATE QUESTION REQUIREMENTS
Worked Example 1- Nov 2002 P2 WHY is Singlish harmful To the interests of Singapore To some of its citizens e.g. (GCE AO level, Nov 2002, Paper 2) Using only the arguments and facts from line 1 to 47 of the article, summarize the case for believing that the increased use of Singlish and declining standards of English fare harmful to the interests of Singapore as a whole and to some of its citizens in particular. Write your summary in no more than 120 words, not counting the opening words which are printed below. Use your own words as far as possible.
Worked Example2- Nov 2003 P2 e.g. (GCE AO level, Nov 2003, Paper 2) Using material from Paragraphs 2 AND 5, in no more than 150 words, summarise the author’s reasons for believing that animals have no rights, and his account of the ‘natural’ relationship of humans and animals. WHY do animals have no rights? WHAT is the ‘natural’ relationship of humans and animals?
Worked Example 3- Nov 2004 P2 e.g. (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits the author sees in choice. Using material from paragraphs 1-4, write your summary in no more than 120 words, not counting the opening words which are given below. Use your own words as far as possible.  WHAT are the benefits of choice?
Worked Example 4- Nov 2005 P2 e.g. (GCE AO level, Nov 2005, Paper 2) In paragraph 5, the author draws two conclusions about aggression. Using material from the first four paragraphs of the passage (lines 1-51), summarise the case the author makes to justify these conclusions. Write your summary In no more than 120 words, not counting the opening words which are printed below. Use your own words as far as possible. Aggression is inevitable Aggression has benefits WHY is aggression inevitable? WHY does aggression have benefits?
(3) Finding the points… (3a) Note the mark allocation (usually 7-8 marks) => Find about _______ points (3b)Write down the summary question on the page where the passage is so you can ______ back to the question. (3c) _________ the points & _________ keywords that need to be paraphrased refer Number highlight ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION
3 (d) GP summaries are summaries of _____________- NOT ____________ 3 (f) Do not bring in your_____ thoughts or opinions your goal is to present the ideas of the writer. ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION arguments examples own
ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION 3 (e) Comb sentence by sentence and look for _____________ that distinguish one point from another Cohesive devices We are offered a seemingly endless choice of clothes, food, and entertainment which gives our lives colour and variety, as well as providing us with daily opportunities to enjoy the pleasures of discrimination and assert our individuality. In just this 1 sentence, there are 3 benefits of choice, as indicated by the cohesive devices, ‘and’ and ‘as well as’, namely 1.Gives our lives colour & variety 2.The pleasure of discrimination 3.Assert our individuality (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits of choice…
3 (g) ____________ are generally omitted, or grouped under generic nouns. ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION Examples Some fifty years ago, the popular singer, Frank Sinatra, boasted ‘I did it my way’, and so now do we all. We want to choose for ourselves. The example of Frank Sinatra can be omitted, because the point made in the example about we wanting to make our own decisions, is said in the next sentence. We are offered a seemingly endless choice of clothes, food and entertainment which gives our lives… “Clothes, food and entertainment” can be summarized as ‘lifestyle choices’ (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits of choice…
3 (g)However, if the point is in the example, and the point is not mentioned elsewhere, it needs to be __________ into a point. ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION e.g. (GCE AO level, Nov 2005, Paper 2) In paragraph 5, the author draws two conclusions about aggression. Summarise the case the author makes to justify these conclusions. Aggression is beneficial because… Warfare, terror, murder, bloodshed – they produced Michelangelo, Leonardo and the Renaissance  In this case, the example cannot be omitted, because it contains a point that is not repeated elsewhere in the passage. e.g. Conflict seems to result in great art works to be created. converted
3 (h) Omit __________- if it doesn’t answer the question, leave it out! irrelevance ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION Singlish can produce amusing howlers, or in the worst case scenario, a language that the rest of the world cannot understand. The first part of this sentence says that the atrocity of Singlish can make people laugh. However, this is not a harmful effect. So we can leave it out. GCE A Level 2002 Paper 2: Summarize the case for believing that the increased use of Singlish and declining standards of English are harmful to the interests of Singapore as a whole and to some of its citizens in particular
3 (h) Omit ___________ – if it is the same point, leave it out! However, if it is an ____________ of the same point, keep it! ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION repetition extension Par 1: Now populations of developed countries are offered a multiplicity of choices in the things they can believe in… These two points are exactly the same – so we would need to just paraphrase it once. e.g. Choice allows us to think and do what we like. (1/2) Par 2: In such free societies everyone is free to choose what they want to believe and do. (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits of choice…
3 (h) Omit ___________ – if it is the same point, leave it out! However, if it is an ____________ of the same point, keep it! ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION repetition extension The concept of right is only appropriate to beings …who can be held accountable for their actions. These two points are not exactly the same – so we would need to paraphrase both points. e.g. Unlike humans, animals do not need explain their behaviour (1/2) but humans have to be punished if they violate the moral code (1/2) Rule of thumb: If you are not sure, then, keep the points. Humans have rights because they belong to a moral community in which they … accept the consequences of breaking rules. (GCE AO level, Nov 2003, Paper 2) Summarise the author’s reasons for believing that animals have no rights…
3 (h) Omit ___________ – if it is the same point, leave it out! However, if it is an ____________ of the same point, keep it! ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION repetition extension We are part of that Nature which is dependent for our survival on our ability to supply our needs from our environment – inevitably at the expense of animal competitors. As we have developed in power and sophistication as well as in numbers, those needs have correspondingly developed and multiplied. The aspiration of teeming millions of human beings must inevitably impact ever more severely on the creatures that also strive to sustain themselves on it. Their habitats shrink, they are farmed more efficiently and they help us to survive or to avoid disease. The highlighted sentence in blue merely tells us about how our needs from the environment have increased – it is not about our relationship with animals. But it can be linked to the next point to explain why we ‘impact ever more severely on the creatures’. So it is considered an extension of the next point, and so we keep the point. (GCE AO level, Nov 2003, Paper 2) Summarise the author’s account of the ‘natural’ relationship of humans and animals.
The ability to speak English gives its users access to the world’s biggest market and the biggest pool of talent as well as to the greater number of information sources; Right: Those who cannot speak English well will not be able to trade with many others, employ professionals and find available sources of information. Wrong: Those who can speak English well will be able to trade with many others, employ professionals and find available sources of information. e.g. (GCE AO level, Nov 2002, Paper 2) Summarize the case for believing that the increased use of Singlish and declining standards of English fare harmful to the interests of Singapore as a whole and to some of its citizens in particular. 3 (i) You may need to_________ the point to fit the question tweak ASAP: SELECT RELEVANT INFORMATION
(4) _____________ the material by putting related points together and arranging them in an appropriate order. 4 (a) Follow the order given in the passage, or 4 (b) Follow the sequence as set out in the question. 4 (c) Use ________________to signal shift between categories of points and to signal one point to another. 4(d) It’s best to write _____ point in one sentence. ASAP: ARRANGE YOUR POINTS Arrange Transitional devices 1
List of useful connectors Adding information: Besides, equally important, further, in addition Emphasising: Certainly, especially, in particular, principally, surely, undoubtedly, without exception Indicating consequences: As a result, hence, therefore, thereby, thus, consequently Making comparison/ expressing contrast : Similarly, by comparison, in contrast, yet, conversely, on the other hand Expressing concession: Naturally, paradoxically, unexpectedly Sequencing information: Secondly, finally, lastly Summaring and generalising: Basically, in brief, in essence, generally, to conclude, to sum up, essentially, fundamentally
(5)In paraphrasing… 5(a) Be concise 5 (b) Be precise 5 (c) Get an overview of the relevant points, and ________________; do not give 1-word substitutions or use the cut and paste method- it will result in a disjointed, oddly phrased sentence – “summary English” ASAP: PARAPHRASE YOUR POINTS Rephrase the idea
ASAP: PARAPHRASE YOUR POINTS This demand stimulates invention and production X: This demand provokes creation and manufacturing. Choice encourages more goods to be made. Our insistence on choices may be the engine which drives modern economies. X: Our persistence of having choices may be the machine which directs current economies. Choice drives today’s economies. (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits of choice… An example of ‘word-for-word substitution’:
5 (d) Change the keywords in the passage that supply the __________to the question 5 (e) Keywords cannot be repeated in their different ________________, e.g. production, produced, producing are all part of the same root word ‘produce’, and cannot be used in the paraphrase. ASAP: PARAPHRASE YOUR POINTS answer Parts of speech
ASAP: PARAPHRASE YOUR POINTS Alongside the increased prosperity … has been a movement away from centralised, totalitarian forms of government towards democracies. The part of the sentence that contains the point is ‘increased prosperity” leading to a “movement towards democracies”. So this needs to be rephrased. e.g. When people become rich, they tend to want to choose their own leaders to rule over them. X: When people become prosperous, they tend to want to democratically elect their leaders. (repeating the keywords) (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits of choice… An example of how to identify and paraphrase keywords:
The final bits… 6(a) _______________ the number of words used. Add or cut as necessary. (You should aim for + 10 words) If you exceed the word limit, it is a sign that you have extraneous material. If you can’t reach it, you have not picked up all the points. hyphenated word -1 word; contractions - 2 words Count & write down
6 (b) Check that your summary is accurate in terms of interpreting the writer’s argument. 6 (c) Check that your summary is accurate in terms of interpreting the writer’s tone & stance on the issue. 6(d) Finally, check for grammar, spelling and punctuation.
Choices provide us with daily opportunities to enjoy the pleasures of discrimination. X: Choice makes us happy to look down on others. (wrong interpretation) We experience the satisfaction of making choices between things Hundreds of TV channels and the Internet offer us inexhaustible sources of information on which to base our decisions and preferences. X: We have too much data to choose from to decide on what we like and what we want to do. (wrong tone) We have a lot of data to choose what we like and what we want to do. (GCE AO level, Nov 2004, Paper 2) Summarise the benefits of choice…
Summary Checklist Have you ascertained the writer’s stand on the issue? Have you Appreciated the question requirements – topic & instructional keywords; relevant paragraphs; number of words; parts to the question? Have you Selected the appropriate material –Combed sentence by sentence and look for transition words that distinguish one point from another; converted examples into points or grouped them under generic nouns;Omit irrelevance & repetition; rephrased the point to fit the question; only summarised the writer’s ideas and not your own? Have you Arranged your points in a logical fashion? Used connectors where necessary? Kept to 1-2 points per sentence? Have you Paraphrased the keywords for each point? Were you concise? Precise? Tweaked the points to answer the question? Avoided summary English? Have you written down the number of words? Have you checked the choice of words for accuracy of the point and also for the tone of voice? Have you checked for grammatical and spelling errors?