Presentation on theme: "Ionic Bonding. A.Ionic bonding is the transfer of electrons from one atom to another –A transfer of electrons will cause atoms to become charged A charged."— Presentation transcript:
A.Ionic bonding is the transfer of electrons from one atom to another –A transfer of electrons will cause atoms to become charged A charged atom is called an ionA charged atom is called an ion –The atom that loses an electron will be a positive ion –The atom that gains an electron will be a negative ion –The bond is usually between a metal and a nonmetal –It is the attraction between the positively and negatively charged ions that holds the atoms together in an ionic bond
B.Ionization is the process of removing electrons and forming ions B. Ionization is the process of removing electrons and forming ions –The energy required to overcome the attraction between electron and nucleus is called ionization energy Atoms with few valence electrons have a low ionization energyAtoms with few valence electrons have a low ionization energy Atoms with many valence electrons have a high ionization energyAtoms with many valence electrons have a high ionization energy
C. Electron affinity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons –Atoms that attract electrons easily have a high electron affinity –Atoms do not attract electrons easily have a low electron affinity
D. Ions in ionic compounds are arranged in a specific way because of the attraction and repelling of their positive and negative charges –A crystal lattice forms from the regular, repeating arrangement of ions in an ionic compound –Crystal lattice structure gives the compound great stability
E. Ionic compounds contain an endless array of ions. –Chemical formulas for ionic compounds show the ratio of ions present
Covalent bonding: A type of chemical bonding between two or more nonmetals in which electrons are shared rather than transferred. How does Covalent bonding work? Electrons travel in the outermost energy levels of the atoms sharing the electron.
Representing Covalent Bonding 1.Lewis Dot Structure/Electron Dot Structure The symbol for an element has dots placed around it to represent the atom’s valence electrons.The symbol for an element has dots placed around it to represent the atom’s valence electrons. Examples:Examples:
Forming Molecules 1. A Molecule is the smallest particle of a covalently bonded substance that has all the properties of that substance.
Forming Molecules 2.Comparing Molecules to ions SizeSize - Molecules are smaller than ions because they usually form 1 unit rather than crystal lattices. FormulasFormulas - Ionic formulas give the symbol of the atoms involved but do not give the exact number.
Forming Molecules Melting Points Melting Points - Most covalently bonded solids have lower melting points than ionic solids because most molecules do not form crystal lattices
Other Molecular Formations Network Solids Network Solids - Molecules are large because the atoms involved tend to bond to each other. Polyatomic Ions (Charged Molecules) Polyatomic Ions (Charged Molecules) - A group of covalently bonded atoms that act like a single atom when combining with other atoms. * Bonds within the polyatomic ion are covalent making it a molecule * Polyatomic ion Molecule acts like an ion. It has a charge
What is Metal? 1. Examples: Copper, silver, gold, tin, nickel, chromium, and magnesium 2.Metals Are usually solidsAre usually solids Like to give up their electronsLike to give up their electrons Form metallic bondsForm metallic bonds
What is Metallic Bonding? 1. The electrons in metals are shared by all metal atoms There is one common electron cloudThere is one common electron cloud The positive nuclei of atoms of metals are surrounded by free moving electrons that are all attracted by the nuclei at the same time.The positive nuclei of atoms of metals are surrounded by free moving electrons that are all attracted by the nuclei at the same time. A common electron cloud allows metal ions to slide by one anotherA common electron cloud allows metal ions to slide by one another