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A SEMINAR ON CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION PRESENTED BY- DWIVEDI ASHISH M.PHARM.1 st SEM GUIDED BY-Mr. V.B.JADHAV 1.

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1 A SEMINAR ON CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION PRESENTED BY- DWIVEDI ASHISH M.PHARM.1 st SEM GUIDED BY-Mr. V.B.JADHAV 1

2 2 Contents: 1.Conductometry-:  Introduction  Ohm’s law.  Conductometric measurements.  Factor affecting conductivity.  Application of conductometry. 2.Conductometric titration-:  Introduction.  Types of conductometric tiration.  Advantages of conductometric tiration. 3.Recent devlopement 4.References.

3 3

4 4 Total conductance of the solution is directly proportional to the sum of the n individual ion contributions. G =  c i  m,i

5 Ohm’s law- 5

6 6 Conductivity measurements 1.Electrodes Two parallel platinized Pt. foil electrodes or Pt. black with electrodeposited a porous Pt. film which increases the surface area of the electrodes and further reduces faradaic polarization. 2.Primary standard solutions Primary standard KCl solution,at 25 ℃, 7.419g of KCl in 1000g of solution has a specific conductivity of Ω -1 /cm.

7 7 3. Conductivity Cell : Avoid the change of temperature during determination 4.Wheat stone bridge :

8 Factors affecting conductivity:  Size of ions  Temperature  Number of ions  Charge of ions Specific conductivity:-It is conductivity offered by a substance of 1cm length and 1sq.cm surface area. units are mhos/cm. Equivalent conductivity:-it is conductivity offered by a solution containing equivalent weight of solute in it. 8

9 9 Molar conductance of various ions at infinite dilution at 25 ℃ ions molar conductance K Na Li H Ag Cl Br OH - 198

10 APPLICATIONS OF CONDUCTOMETRY It can be used for the determination of:-  Solubility of sparingly soluble salts  Ionic product of water  Basicity of organic acids  Salinity of sea water (oceanographic work)  Chemical equilibrium in ionic reactions  Conductometric titration 10

11 CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATIONS :  The determination of end point of a titration by means of conductivity measurements are known as conductometric titrations. 11

12 12 Types of conductometric titrations:  Acid-base titration  Precipitation titration  Replacement titration  Redox (oxidation-reduction) titration  Complexometric titration

13 ACID-BASE TITRATIONS ACID-BASE TITRATIONS Titration of strong acid Titration of strong acid (a) strong base.g. HCl NaOH (a) with strong base.g. HCl with NaOH (b) weak basee.g. HCl NH 4 OH (b) with weak basee.g. HCl with NH 4 OH 13

14 Titration of weak acid Titration of weak acid (c) strong basee.g. CH 3 COOH NaOH (c) with strong base e.g. CH 3 COOH with NaOH (d) weak base e.g. CH 3 COOH NH 4 OH (d) with weak base e.g. CH 3 COOH with NH 4 OH 14

15 PRECIPITATION TITRATIONS:- [K + +Cl - ]+[Ag + +No 3 _ ] 15

16 REPLACEMENT TITRATIONS  Salt of strong acid and weak base vs. strong base Ex: ammonium chloride vs. sodium hydroxide  Salt of strong base and weak acid vs. strong acid Eg: sodium acetate vs. hydrochloric acid 16

17 a)Salt of strong acid, weak base vs. strong base NH 4 Cl+NaOH→NH 4 OH+NaCl 17

18 b)Salt of strong base and weak acid vs. strong acid CH 3 COONa+HCl → CH 3 COOH+NaCl 18

19 REDOX TITRATION Titration of ferrous ions with dichromate ions: 6 Fe 2+ +Cr 2 O H + →6Fe 3+ +2Cr 3+ +7H 2 O 19

20 COMPLEXOMETRIC TITRATION Ex.:-KCl vs. Hg(ClO 4 ) 2  Non-aqueous titrations can also be measured using conductometry. Ex:- a)titration of weak bases vs. perchloric acid in dioxan-formic acid. b)Titration of weak organic acids in methanol vs. tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide in methanol- benzene. 20

21 ADVANTAGES OF CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATIONS  No need of indicator  Colored or dilute solutions or turbid suspensions can be used for titrations.  Temperature is maintained constant throughout the titration.  End point can be determined accurately and errors are minimized as the end point is being determined graphically. 21

22 22 RECENT DEVLOPEMNTS  In refinary industries.  Estimation of polyelectrolytic solution.  Biotechnology.  Microbiosensors for enviromental monitoring.

23 References  Gurdeep.R. chatwal,sham k.anand,instrumental method of chemical analysis,himalaya publishing house,2008,p.no  Hovert H.willard,lynne L.merritt,john A.dean,frank A.settle,jr.,instrumental method of analysis CBS publishers 1986,p.no  Kenneth A. connors,e textbook of pharmaceutical analysis,third edition,wiley india,p.no  Danniel christein,analytical chemistry,2 nd edition,wiley india,p.no  23

24   Kissinger, P. T., AND W. W. Heineman, eds., Laboratory Techniques in Electroanalytical Chemistry, Dekker, New York,  A.H.beckett,J.B. stenlake,practical pharmaceutical chemistry,fourth edition,part –two,p.no-91.  Lingane, J.J., Electroanalytical Chemistry, 2 nd ed., Wiley- Interscience, New York, 1958 Continued…. 24

25 THANK YOU 25


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