# What is matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass What is mass? Measure of the number of atoms in an object.

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What is matter? Anything that takes up space and has mass What is mass? Measure of the number of atoms in an object

What is an element? A single type of atom – defined by its number of protons

Structure of the Atom Nucleus – central part of an atom (contains Protons(+) and Neutrons(0) Orbitals or Electron Cloud – area where electrons orbit the nucleus (contains Electrons(-))

The Periodic Table of Elements First created by DIMITRI MENDELEEV

Periodic Table PERIODS (or rows) G R O (or columns) U P SElements are arranged with similar properties!

SYMBOL Atomic Mass # Atomic #

Atomic Number = an atoms # of Protons The # of Protons = # of electrons in a stable atom Atomic Mass Number = an atoms # of protons +# of neutrons Atomic Mass Units – 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom

SYMBOL Atomic Mass # Atomic # = # of Protons = # of electrons Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons ATOMIC MASS – ATOMIC # = Neutrons (4-2) = 2

Properties of Elements Metals – Left of the ladder Good conductors, malleable, ductile, solid Non-metals – Right of the ladder Poor conductors, brittle, most are gasses Metalloids – On the ladder Share properties of both metals and non-metals

BOHR MODEL of the atom Chlorine Atomic # 17 Mass # 35 17 protons 17 electrons 18 neutrons

Electron Shells 2 8 8 (10) 18 32

Valence Electrons Valence Electron – an electron in the outermost electron shell

Draw a simple Bohr model for… Hydrogen Lithium Sodium How many valence electrons do they have?

Dot Diagrams

Do Now: Find the definitions in your book (take out your homework) Atom – building block of matter (smallest part of an element) Element – single type of atom (cannot be broken down into simpler substances) Molecule – single unit of a compound Compound – 2 or more elements chemically combined

Is it a metal or a non-metal? Sodiummetal or non-metal Carbonmetal or non-metal Nitrogenmetal or non-metal Lithiummetal or non-metal Goldmetal or non-metal Oxygenmetal or non-metal Magnesiummetal or non-metal Fluorinemetal or non-metal

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Stable electron configuration Atoms with a complete (filled) outermost electron orbital 8 electrons = complete, stable electron orbital All the noble gasses have a stable electron configuration

Bonding Ionic Bond – Attractive force between a positively charged particle(+) and a negatively charged particle(-) – transfer of electrons – between a metal and a non-metal Covalent Bond – Sharing of electrons between two non-metals

Electron Lenders and Borrowers METALS – lenders (less than 4 valence electrons) NON-METALS – borrowers (more than 4 valence electrons) Metal - Sodium (1 valence electrons) – lends 1 electron becomes +1… in order to become stable like the noble gasses Non-Metal – Flourine (7 valence electrons) – borrows 1 electron becomes -1… in order to become stable like the noble gasses

Ionic Bonds - Review TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS METALS x Non-METALS Metals lend electrons (less than 4) Non-Metals borrow electrons (more than 4)

Drawing the Ionic Bonds Magnesium Chloride (MgCl 2 )

Covalent Bonds - 8 SHARING OF ELECTRONS Non-METALS x Non-METALS

Drawing the Covalent Bonds Water(H 2 O)

Is it an Ionic or Covalent Bond? Magnesium Sulfide IonicCovalent Carbon DioxideIonicCovalent Nitrogen DioxideIonicCovalent Lithium BromideIonicCovalent Sulfur DioxideIonicCovalent Barium OxideIonicCovalent Iron SulfideIonicCovalent

Calculating # of atoms in a formula K 2 SO 4 CaBr 2 LiNO 3 Na 3 PO 4

Calculating gram formula mass K 2 SO 4 CaBr 2 LiNO 3 Na 3 PO 4

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