Presentation on theme: "Ionic Bonds. Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest energy level. They are available for interacting with other atoms. We."— Presentation transcript:
Valence Electrons Valence electrons are the electrons in the highest energy level. They are available for interacting with other atoms. We focus on s and p sublevels and ignore d an f, because d and f are shaped weirdly and do not interact much with other atoms. What are they?
ex. Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 ex. N ex. P 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3
Why do we care? Valence electrons allow us to predict what ions are formed Ions want full valence shells Atoms from the same group have the same number of valence electrons and so form ions with the same charge
A convenient way to show valence e - Lewis dot diagrams show the valence electrons and ignore the rest of the sub atomic particles ex. Na ex. P ex. N ex. Ne page 188
Exceptions Transition metals have their highest energy electrons in that weird d suborbital, which makes it hard to predict what ions they will form. Some of them can form two different ions. ex. Iron becomes Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ Labeled Iron (II) and Iron (III) Called ferrous and ferric
Complications involve multiple atoms that are covalently bonded together and have a net charge ex. Nitrite NO 2 - Polyatomic ions
How do we use this? Ionic bonding involves combining multiple ions such that their net charge is 0 ex. Na + + Cl - NaCl ex. Na + + P 3-