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Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas Mr. Roberts Chemistry Level 2.

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1 Chapter 9 Chemical Names and Formulas Mr. Roberts Chemistry Level 2

2 Section 1 – Naming Cations Group A Elements Just write name of metal and add “ion” to ending Example: – Na +1 sodium ion – Al +3 aluminum ion

3 Naming Cations Group B Elements (transition metals) Ionic charge will change so write Roman Numerals in parenthesis after name of metal to indicate charge. (Stock System) – Table 9.2 page 255

4 Naming Cations Some post transition element also have charges that will change. – Ex: Tin and Lead Sn +2 Sn +4 Pb +2 Pb +4 Some transition metals only have one ionic charge. Therefore you don’t use roman numerals. – SilverAg +1 – CadmiumCd +2 – ZincZn +2

5 Naming Anions Always have the same charge! – Change suffix with - ide – Ex: F -1 Fluoride ion O -2 Oxide ion

6 Polyatomic Ions Group of atoms that stay together and have an overall charge Usually end with –ate or –ite (one less oxygen) Ex:(SO 3 ) -2 Sulfite (SO 4 ) -2 Sulfate (NH 4 ) +1 ammonium

7 Section 2 – Writing/Naming Ionic Compounds Finding the formulas for ionic compounds. Criss-Cross Method Remember…ionic compounds must be expressed in the lowest whole number ratio. Lose sign value

8 Naming Ionic Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds (2 ions) – Use rules for naming ions – Ex: Na +1 Cl -1 {sodium ion and chloride ion} NaCl Sodium Chloride

9 Naming Ionic Compounds (continued) Naming Ternary Ionic Compounds (involving a polyatomic ion group) Name it as it appears Ex: CaCO 3 calcium carbonate Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 magnesium phosphate CaSO 4 calcium sulfate If ammonium or any other polyatomic cation is reacting with a monatomic anion use binary ionic rules

10 Naming Group B Ionic Compounds Rules for naming binary and ternary ionic compounds apply Include a roman numeral in parenthesis to indicate the ionic charge. – Use the reverse of the criss cross method to determine the charge. – Ex:

11 Section 3 – Molecular Compounds Naming Binary molecular compounds (2 nonmetals) Name the elements in order they appear. Drop ending of second element and replace with suffix “ide”. Use prefixes to indicate # of atoms present – Table 9.4 page 269

12 Binary Molecular Compounds Mono = 1 Di = 2 Tri = 3 Tetra = 4 Penta = 5 Hexa = 6 Hepta = 7 Octa = 8 Nona = 9 Deca = 10 Examples: N 2 O dinitrogen monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide COcarbon monoxide SF 6 sulfur hexafluoride

13 9.4 Naming and Writing Acids Acid: a compound contain H + ions. Anion Ending Acid Name with Suffix Acid Ending Example - idehydro________icacidHCl – hydrochloric acid - ite____________ousacidH 2 SO 3 – sulfurous acid - ate_____________icacidH 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid

14 Examples HF HClO 2 HClO 3 Hydrofluoric Acid Chlorous Acid Chloric Acid

15 Naming and Writing Bases Base: a compound containing OH -1 Named in the same way as other ionic compounds Example: NaOH sodium hydroxide

16 Section 9.5 – The Laws Governing Formulas and Names We are able to name compounds and write their formulas because they form from elements in predictable ways

17 1. The Law of Definite Proportions In samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions.

18 2. The Law of Multiple Proportions Whenever the same two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers. – John Dalton

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