Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12: Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures consisting of a solute and solvent. Not all solutions are liquids! A solution can be a solid,"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 12: SolutionsSolutions are homogeneous mixtures consisting of a solute and solvent.Not all solutions are liquids!A solution can be a solid, liquid, or a gas.
6Solution ProcessEnergy of solution formation for ionic compounds has two factors.Factor One: Lattice energy of ionic compound.Factor Two: Ion-dipole force formed between water and ions.Which one requires energy?Which one produces energy?NH4NO3(s) and MgSO4(s)
7Ion-Dipole ForceIntermolecular force between water and ion is called the Ion-Dipole force.Hydration energy = combined interactions of all six waters with the ion.
8Energy of Ionic Solutes DHsolution = DHhydration – DHlattice energy
9Insoluble Ionic Compounds Compounds with very LARGE lattice energies are insoluble.Compounds with smaller lattice energies are highly soluble.Ex) KBr(s) vs. PbS(s)Ex) Al2O3(s) vs. KNO3(s)
10Energy of SolutionEnergy to overcome solute-solute interaction (requires energy = endothermic)Energy to overcome solvent-solvent interaction (requires energy = endothermic)Energy of solute-solvent interaction (produces energy = exothermic)
11Energy of SolutionIf – 3 > 0, then net process is endothermic.If – 3 < 0, then net process is exothermic.If – 3 >> 0, then the two substances will NOT mix.
12Spontaneity Enthalpy is not the sole factor in why things dissolve. Natural tendency of the universe is to go from order to disorder.A solution is going from order to disorder when mixing occurs.The amount of disorder is called the entropy of the system.
13SpontaneityBoth CCl4 and C6H14 are non-polar molecules with similar boiling points.Adding the two together will produce a solution increasing the entropy of the system.
14Non-polar and Polar “Like dissolves like” Polar substances dissolve in polar solvents.Non-polar substances dissolve in non-polar solvents.Non-polar substances do NOT dissolve in polar solvents!
19Saturated SolutionsWhen more solid solute is added to a liquid and the solid does NOT dissolve, the solution is said to be saturated.Solubility limit = maximum amount solute that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent.KNO3 = 36g / 100mL.Super-saturated solution.
26Colligative Properties Why do we put “salt” on our roads in the winter?Why do we add “antifreeze” to the radiator in our cars?Can we reduce the vapor pressure of “volatile” liquids?Yes!
27Colligative Properties Any property that depends only on the quantity of solute particles and not their identity.Vapor Pressure loweringFreezing-pt depressionBoiling-pt elevationOsmotic Pressure
28Vapor PressureA non-volatile solute (solid) can be added to a volatile solvent and LOWER its vapor pressure.Pa = ca PaoMole fraction is for the solvent and Pao is the vapor pressure for the pure solvent (dependent on T).Addition of a nonvolatile solute reduces the rate of vaporization, decreasing the amount of vapor
29Vapor PressureTwo volatile liquids, of similar intermolecular forces, will both contribute a partial pressure.Raoult’s LawPtotal = caPao + cbPboGraphical interpretationFractional distillation
31BP and FP When a solute is added to a solvent: Formulas are similar: the freezing-pt is lowered.the boiling-pt is raised.Formulas are similar:DT = Kf cmDT = Kb cm
32OsmosisIn biological systems, the cellular walls are made up of cellulose.Cellulose allows water molecules to pass in and out of the cells.Larger molecules or ions are generally “blocked” from entering.Note: glucose is transported into the cells via a complex process.
33OsmosisWhen two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, solvent molecules will flow from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration.
34OsmosisThis is important in maintaining water in our cells.
35Osmotic Pressure The osmotic pressure is measured in atmospheres. p = MRTM is the molarity of the solutionR = L atm/mol KT = temperature, K
36Molar MassesMany experiments involving colligative properties can find a molar mass of a solute.Generally, this requires us to work backwards through several formulas.
37Ionic SolutesBecause ionic solutes break apart into ions, an adjustment to our formulas must be made.i = van’t Hoff factor.Equals the number of ions per formula unit.True factor depends on the concentration. As the concentration increases, i becomes less than predicted.Why?
42Colloids There are several types of colloids. Aerosol = a liquid or solid in a gas.fog, smokeFoam = a gas in a liquid or solid.whipped cream, marshmallowEmulsion = a liquid in a liquid or a solid in a solid.milk, butter, mayoSol = a solid in a liquid or solid.cement, paint, gems