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Introduction to Chemical Bonding

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1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding
Chemistry – Chapter 6 Introduction to Chemical Bonding

2 Objectives Define chemical bond.
Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. Describe ionic and covalent bonding. Explain why most chemical bonding is neither purely ionic nor purely covalent. Classify bonding type according to electronegativity differences.

3 Introduction to Chemical Bonding
Atoms seldom exist as independent particles in nature. Chemical bond: is a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together. Most atoms are chemically bonded to each other because most atoms are less stable existing by themselves than when they are combined. By bonding with each other, atoms decrease in potential energy, thereby creating more stable arrangements of matter.

4 Types of Chemical Bonding
When atoms bond, their valence electrons are redistributed in ways that make the atoms more stable. The way in which the electrons are redistributed determines the type of bonding. Ionic Bonding: Chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. Covalent bonding: Results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms.

5 Electronegativity and Bonding
Purely ionic bonds do not occur because the atom that gives up the electron still has some attraction for the electron. The degree to which bonding between atoms of two elements is ionic or covalent can be estimated by calculating the difference in the elements’ electronegativities, a measure of the atom’s ability to attract electrons.

6 Covalent Bonding Bonding between atoms with an electronegativity difference of 1.7 or less has an ionic character of 50% or less and is classified as covalent. Bonding between two atoms of the same element is completely covalent.

7 Nonpolar Covalent Bond
Nonpolar Covalent bond: A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge. Bonds having 0 to 5% ionic character, corresponding to electronegativity differences of roughly 0 to 0.3, are generally considered nonpolar covalent.

8 Polar Bond Bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge.
Bonds have significantly different electronegativities, the electrons are more strongly attracted by the more- electronegative atom. Covalent bonds having 5 to 50% ionic character, corresponding to electronegativity differences of 0.3 to 1.7, are classified as polar

9 Polar-covalent Bond Polar-covalent Bond: a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons.

10 Carbon The bonding properties of carbon are unique.
Carbon can form four covalent bonds. Carbon bonds with other carbon atoms to form long-chain molecules of different sizes and shapes.

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