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Entry Task- Block #1 Nov. 6 th -7 th QUESTION: What holds atoms together AND what subatomic particle is involved? You have 5 minutes!

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Presentation on theme: "Entry Task- Block #1 Nov. 6 th -7 th QUESTION: What holds atoms together AND what subatomic particle is involved? You have 5 minutes!"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Entry Task- Block #1 Nov. 6 th -7 th QUESTION: What holds atoms together AND what subatomic particle is involved? You have 5 minutes!

3 A GENDA : Ionic vs. Covalent Substance Demo Go over Ch. 8 section 1-2 notes HW: Ch. 8 sec 1-2 ws

4 I ONIC AND C OVALENT S UBSTANCES - D EMO

5 #NameFormulaPhase Dissolves in water Conduction Melting point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Isopropyl alcohol (CH 3 ) 2 COH -88.0°C LOW Copper II sulfate CuSO 4 600°C HIGH Sodium chloride NaCl 800°C HIGH CamphorC 10 H 16 O 177 °C LOW Potassium nitrate KNO 3 306°C HIGH NaphthaleneC 10 H 8 80.5 °C LOW Iodine I2I2 113-114 °C LOW Potassium Iodide KI 681°C HIGH SOLIDYES SOLIDYES LiquidYESNO SOLIDNO SOLIDYES SOLIDNO SOLIDNO SOLIDYES

6 THINK - TO YOURSELF Write your answer on the answer sheet- QUESTION #1 What is the correlation- connection- between conduction and melting point? Sort the chemicals to make it easier. SubstanceConductionMelting point

7 PAIR - WITH ELBOW PARTNER QUESTION #1 What is the correlation- connection- between conduction and melting point? Tweak or add to your answer- discuss the best answer. SubstanceConductionMelting point

8 THINK - TO YOURSELF Write your answer on answer sheet QUESTION #2 What is the correlation between dissolving in water and conduction? Sort the chemicals to make it easier SubstanceDissolves in waterConduction

9 PAIR - WITH ELBOW PARTNER QUESTION #2 What is the correlation between dissolving in water and conduction? Sort the chemicals to make it easier Tweak or add to your answer- discuss the best answer. SubstanceDissolves in waterConduction

10 THINK - TO YOURSELF Write your answer on answer sheet QUESTION #3 Look at the formulas- look up (on periodic table) what kind of elements (metal/metalloid/nonmetal) makes up the substance. What is the correlation between substances with metal elements and melting point of the substance? Sort the chemicals to make it easier. SubstanceHave metalsMelting point

11 PAIR - WITH ELBOW PARTNER QUESTION #3 Look at the formulas- look up (on periodic table) what kind of elements (metal/metalloid/nonmetal) makes up the substance. What is the correlation between substances with metal elements and melting point of the substance? Sort the chemicals to make it easier. Tweak or add to your answer- discuss the best answer. SubstanceHave metalsMelting point

12 THINK - TO YOURSELF Write your answer on answer sheet QUESTION #4 Pulling it ALL together. What did you discover? What are the relationships that connect?

13 PAIR - WITH ELBOW PARTNER QUESTION #4 Pulling it ALL together. What did you discover? What are the relationships that connect? Tweak or add to your answer- discuss the best answer.

14 F LIP P APERS OVER

15 IONIC AND COVALENT S UBSTANCES Substances -Made of elements -Chemically bonded Affect the substances properties Metals/metalloids/nonmetal Ionic versus covalent

16 IONIC S UBSTANCES Contain Metals!!! I F THE S UBSTANCE Ionic Bonds (Tight bonds)

17 IONIC S UBSTANCES Solids at room temperature High melting points Hard and brittle Dissolves in water Conductive after dissolving in water Properties

18 COVALENT S UBSTANCES Contain Nonmetals only!!! I F THE S UBSTANCE Covalent Bonds (Lose bonds)

19 COVALENT SUBSTANCES Liquid/gas at room temperature Low melting points Does not dissolve in water Not conductive Properties

20 F LIP P APERS OVER TO THE FRONT

21 #NameFormulaPhase Dissolves in water ConductsMelting point Ionic or Covalent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Isopropyl alcohol (CH 3 ) 2 COH -88.0°C LOW Copper II sulfate CuSO 4 600°C HIGH Sodium chloride NaCl 800°C HIGH CamphorC 10 H 16 O 177 °C LOW Potassium nitrate KNO 3 306°C HIGH NaphthaleneC 10 H 8 80.5 °C LOW Iodine I2I2 113-114 °C LOW Potassium Iodide KI 681°C HIGH SOLIDYES SOLIDYES LiquidYESNO SOLIDNO SOLIDYES SOLIDNO SOLIDNO SOLIDYES Ionic Covalent Ionic

22 I CAN …. Define a chemical bond. Describe the formation of positive and negative ions Create and name binary ionic compounds.

23 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS DESCRIBE a chemical bond. The force that holds two atoms together. Chemical bonds may form by the attraction between the positive nucleus and negative electrons or the attraction between a positive ion and negative ion.

24 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS Provide the electron dot structures for groups 1A-8A. lithium Liberyllium Beboron Bcarbon C nitrogen Noxygen Ofluorine Fneon Ne

25 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS RECALL from Ch. 6, what is ionization energy? Ionization energy is how easily an atom loses electrons.

26 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS What is electron affinity? How much attraction an atom has for electrons

27 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS State the octet rule? When atoms have 8 electrons in its valence orbit it’s chemically stable- like the noble gases

28 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS How are positive ions formed? What are they called? When atoms loses electrons they form positive ions called cations. Metals are cations

29 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS What are the charges on group 1A?_______ What are the charges on group 2A________ What are the charges on group 3A?_______ 1+ 2+ 3+

30 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H+H+H+H+ Li + Na + K+K+K+K+

31 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 13: Loses 3 Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions B 3+ Al 3+ Ga 3+

32 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 14: Lose 4 Lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons? Depends! If it’s a metal it will lose 4 electrons = +4

33 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS What are pseudo-noble gas configurations? YOU NEED TO READ!! When the inner groups 4-6 lose electrons to fill their s, p, d orbitals by “stealing” from the higher s group. This forms a “fake (pseudo) noble gas configuration.

34 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS How are negative ions formed? What are they called? When atoms gain electrons they form negative ions called anions. Nonmetals are anions

35 8.1 F ORMING C HEMICAL B ONDS What are the charges on group 5A?_______ What are the charges on group 6A________ What are the charges on group 7A?_______ 3- 2- 1-

36 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 17: Gains 1 Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions F 1- Cl 1- Br 1- Fluoride Chloride Bromide I 1- Iodide

37 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 18: Stable Noble gases do not form ions! Stable Noble gases do not form ions!

38 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - 12: Many transition elements Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. have more than one possible oxidation state. Iron(II) = Fe 2+ Iron(III) = Fe 3+

39 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - 12: Some transition elements Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state. have only one possible oxidation state. Zinc = Zn 2+ Silver = Ag +

40 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Formation of an Ionic Bond- READ THIS PART!! DESCRIBE an ionic bond When atoms transfer electrons creating a positive- negative ion, the electrostatic forces that hold these opposing particles together is called ionic bonding Transfer electrons +/- Metal-nonmetal Compound

41 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS What are ionic compounds? Compounds that contain ionic bonds are called ionic compounds Transfer electrons +/- Metal-nonmetal Compound

42 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS What are binary ionic compounds? Compounds that contain 2 different elements EXAMPLES: NaCl MgF 2 Al 2 O 3

43 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Properties of Ionic Compounds What are ionic crystals? When ionic compounds are packed in a repeated pattern of +/- they create an ionic crystal

44 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Properties of Ionic Compounds What are crystal lattices? Crystal lattices are three-dimensional geometric arrangement of particles. Each positive ion is surround by a negative ion

45 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS What specific properties do ionic crystals have? They have high melting and boiling points. The color is related to their structure. Brittle solids Dissolves in water Conductive (when dissolved in water) Electrolytes

46 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS What causes these particular properties? The bonded atoms have a strong attraction to each other (+/-).

47 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS What creates an electrolyte? When ionic compounds dissolve in water the ions are free from each other and conduct a current.

48 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Energy and the ionic bond What is an endothermic reaction? Exothermic? When energy is absorbed during a chemical reaction, the reaction is endothermic. When energy is released during a chemical reaction, the reaction is exothermic.

49 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Energy and the ionic bond The creation of an ionic bond is which type of energy reaction? Exothermic.

50 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Energy and the ionic bond What is lattice energy? What is the strength determined by? Lattice energy is the energy required to separate ions from each other in an ionic compound. The strength is determined by hold of each ion has to each other. The MORE negative the lattice energy the stronger the attraction

51 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Energy and the ionic bond How does the size of the ions affect lattice energy? The smaller the ion the MORE negative value for lattice energy (stronger the attraction). This is because the valence electrons are closer to the nucleus.

52 8.2 T HE F ORMATION & N ATURE OF I ONIC B ONDS Energy and the ionic bond How does the charge affect lattice energy? Large positives (+3) and large negatives (-3) the more negative the lattice energy (stronger the attractions). Mg 2+ and O 2- = MgO has 4 times the lattice energy than Na 1+ and F 1- = NaF

53 8.3 N AME AND F ORMULAS FOR I ONIC C OMPOUNDS Define formula unit Since ionic compounds exist as a crystal lattice, we call the simplest form of the lattice as the formula unit. NaCl exist asNaClNaClNaCl ClNaClNaClNa NaClNaClNaCl ClNaClNaClNa NaClNaClNaCl Formula unit 

54 8.3 N AME AND F ORMULAS FOR I ONIC C OMPOUNDS Define monatomic ion Monatomic ion is one-atom ion like Mg 2+ or Br 1-.

55 M ONATOMIC IONS TO B INARY COMPOUNDS One –atom ion (Monatomic ions) Fluorine atom  gains 1 electrons + Fluorine ion (F -1 ) Lithium atom  loses 1 electron + Lithium ion (Li +1 ) Binary compounds Form when 2 monatomic ion bond to make a formula unit. Oxidation numbers (charges) have to cancel out

56 8.3 N AME AND F ORMULAS FOR I ONIC C OMPOUNDS Define polyatomic ion Polyatomic ions are made of bonded atoms (covalently bonded) that carries a charge. EXAMPLE- phosphate ion PO 4 3-

57 8.3 N AME AND F ORMULAS FOR I ONIC C OMPOUNDS Define oxyanion Oxyanion are polyatomic ions that contain a nonmetal (covalently) bonded to an oxygen. EXAMPLE- phosphate ion PO 4 3-

58 H OMEWORK : C H. 8 SEC. 1-2 WS


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