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© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 1 of 25 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds In many coastal countries that have warm, relatively dry climates, salt.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 1 of 25 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds In many coastal countries that have warm, relatively dry climates, salt."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 1 of 25 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds In many coastal countries that have warm, relatively dry climates, salt is produced by the evaporation of seawater. You will learn how cations and anions combine to form stable compounds such as sodium chloride. 7.2

2 Slide 2 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds. Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. The charges of the ions balance each other and the compound has no charge 7.2

3 Slide 3 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Aluminum metal and the nonmetal bromine react to form an ionic solid, aluminum bromide. 7.2

4 Slide 4 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds are called ionic bonds. 7.2

5 Slide 5 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units A chemical formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance. A formula unit is the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound. 7.2

6 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 6 of 25 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride. 7.2

7 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 7 of 25 Conceptual Problem 7.2

8 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 8 of 25 Conceptual Problem 7.2

9 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 9 of 25 Conceptual Problem 7.2

10 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 10 of 25 Conceptual Problem 7.2

11 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Slide 11 of 25 Properties of Ionic Compounds What are three properties of ionic compounds? –Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. –Ionic compounds generally have high melting points –Ionic compounds are brittle 7.2

12 Slide 12 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds The orderly arrangement of component ions produces the beauty of crystalline solids. 7.2

13 Slide 13 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal. In NaCl, each ion has a coordination number of

14 Slide 14 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8. In TiO 2, each Ti 4+ ion has a coordination number of 6, while each O 2- ion has a coordination number of

15 Slide 15 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water. 7.2

16 Slide 16 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Bonding in Metals You have probably seen decorative fences, railings, or weathervanes made of a metal called wrought iron. In this section, you will learn how metallic properties derive from the way that metal ions form bonds with one another. 7.3

17 Slide 17 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a sea of electrons. The valence electrons are mobile and can drift freely from one part of the metal to another. Metallic bonds consist of the attraction of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal ions. 7.3

18 Slide 18 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties Metals are ductile—that is, they can be drawn into wires. 7.3

19 Slide 19 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties A force can change the shape of a metal. A force can shatter an ionic crystal. 7.3

20 Slide 20 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Crystalline Structure of Metals These tomatoes have a closed-packed arrangement. Similar arrangements can be found in the crystalline structure of metals. 7.3

21 Slide 21 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Crystalline Structure of Metals Metal atoms are arranged in very compact and orderly patterns. 7.3

22 Slide 22 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Alloys Alloys are mixtures composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to those of their component elements. 7.3

23 Slide 23 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Alloys Bicycle frames are often made of titanium alloys that contain aluminum and vanadium. 7.3

24 Slide 24 of 25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Alloys The most important alloys today are steels. Steels have a wide range of useful properties, such as corrosion resistance, ductility, hardness, and toughness. 7.3

25 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 25 of 25 Section Quiz -or- Continue to: Launch: Assess students’ understanding of the concepts in Section 7.2 Section Quiz. 7.2 and 7.3.

26 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 26 of Which chemical formula is incorrect? a.KF 2 b.CaS c.MgO d.NaBr 7.2 Section Quiz.

27 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 27 of Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current a.only when melted. b.when melted or dissolved in water. c.only when dissolved in water. d.when solid or melted. 7.2 Section Quiz.

28 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 28 of At room temperature, most ionic compounds are a.crystalline solids. b.liquids. c.gases. d.soft, low melting-point solids. 7.2 Section Quiz.

29 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 29 of 25 1.The valence electrons of metals can be modeled as a.a body-centered cube. b.octets of electrons. c.a rigid array of electrons. d.a sea of electrons. 7.3 Section Quiz.

30 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 30 of In most metals, the atoms are a.free to move from one part of the metal to another. b.arranged in a compact and orderly pattern. c.placed at irregular locations. d.randomly distributed. 7.3 Section Quiz.

31 © Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Slide 31 of Alloys are important because they a.are pure substances. b.are the ores from which metals can be refined. c.can have properties superior to those of their components. d.are produced by the combustion of metals. 7.3 Section Quiz.


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