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Enzymes/Macromolecules/Bo nding- covalent and ionic.

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Presentation on theme: "Enzymes/Macromolecules/Bo nding- covalent and ionic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enzymes/Macromolecules/Bo nding- covalent and ionic

2 Enzymes  Enzymes are proteins that help to speed up chemical reactions in the body  Shape of Enzyme determines its function  High temperature or extreme pH values may effect the shape of an enzyme molecule (denaturing). Makes enzymes useless

3 Reaction Without-Enzymes

4 Reaction With-Enzymes

5 Enzymes are Specific  An enzyme can be used for a specific reaction  Double sugar needs to be broken apart  Only one enzyme can function for this reaction  Shape of an Enzyme can determine its functions

6 Enzymes


8 Denaturing

9  Change in shape of enzyme due to high temperature or extreme pH

10 Denaturing  Irreversible process, enzyme will not work anymore

11 Macromolecules  Large Molecules  Populate a cell and provide it with important functions of life Structural support Source of stored fuel Ability to store and retrieve genetic information Ability to speed biochemical reactions

12 Four major types of Macromolecules  Lipids  Carbohydrates  Nucleic Acids  Proteins Polymers: chain of similar units or monomers, that are linked together by covalent bonds

13 Diverse groups of molecules in nonpolymorphic form  Lipids  Carbohydrates  Nucleic Acids  Proteins Sugars Nucleotides Amino Acids Four major types of Macromolecules

14 Proteins  Chains of Amino Acids linked with Polypeptide Bonds  20 Amino Acids make Proteins, each differing only in the side chain  Properties of side chains account for structural and functional differences

15 Protein

16 Carbohydrates  Simple sugars called monosaccharides as well as large sugars called polysaccharides  Glucose is hexose, a sugar composed of 6 carbon atoms, usually found in a ring form  Starch macromolecule is a polysaccharide composed of 1000s of glucose units

17 Carbohydrates

18 Nucleic Acid  DNA and RNA are nucleic acid  Two polymers with complementary nucleotide sequence can pair with each other  Pairing allows NA with the ability to  Store  Transmit  Retrieve genetic information

19 Nucleic Acid

20 Lipids  Triglyceride is composed of 3 fatty acid and 1 glycerol molecule  Fatty acids attach to Glycerol by covalent ester bond  Long hydrocarbon chain of each fatty acid makes the triglyceride molecule nonpolar and hydrophobic

21 Lipids


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