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OB: Transitional Metals become ions too. The rules for ionic bonding and naming ionic compounds from the middle of the table. You must have a reference.

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Presentation on theme: "OB: Transitional Metals become ions too. The rules for ionic bonding and naming ionic compounds from the middle of the table. You must have a reference."— Presentation transcript:

1 OB: Transitional Metals become ions too. The rules for ionic bonding and naming ionic compounds from the middle of the table. You must have a reference table out now, open to the periodic table.

2 Let’s look quickly at these basic groupings of metals and non metals: Group 1 all make only +1 cations, because all have 1 electron in the outer orbital Group 2 all make +2 cations, because they all lose 2 electrons from their outer orbital Al makes a +3 cation, because it would lose 3 electrons when it forms a cation Group 17 all make -1 anions, because all need to gain 1 electron to become isoelectric to the noble gases. Group 16 all make -2 anions, they need to gain 2 electrons to fill their outer orbital Group 15 atoms become -3 anions (you probably know why)

3 We are about to start discussing what we do with those selected oxidation states. These numbers will be important for a variety of reasons. With the transitional metals, the selected oxidations indicate the charge of the cation that they form. Scandium makes a +3 cation. See that +3 in the corner? That’s what it’s for. Yttrium too, a +3 cation. Peek at zinc, it only makes a +2 cation. The transitional metals make the cations that are indicated, they do not always follow an “isoelectric” rule, like metals we’ve seen in groups 1 and 2 and Al.

4 When the transitional metals form cations and bond to anions they make ionic compounds. Naming these compounds works the same way as the ones you have already met. For example: React these atoms by changing them to ions, write formulas and names… Sc + Cl Sc +3 + Cl -1 ScCl 3 That stuff is called scandium chloride. Try these 2: Zr + P In + F

5 That stuff is zirconium phosphide Zr + P Zr +4 + P -3 Zr 3 P 4 In + F In +3 + F -1 InF 3 This is indium fluoride

6 Ti Titanium has 3 different positive selected oxidation states. What is possible here? Turns out that many of the transitional metals, titanium included, can make more than one stable cation. Titanium can be Ti +2, Ti +3, or Ti +4 How cool is that?

7 Let’s look at each of these atoms and list what cations that they make: V-23 for example: V +2, V +3, V +4, and V +5 Cr-24 Fe-26 Cu-29 Ga-31 Cd-48 Nb-41 Hg-80

8 Let’s look at each of these atoms and determine what cations that they make: V-23 V +2, V +3, V +4, and V +5 Cr-24 Cr +2, Cr +3, and Cr +6 Fe-26 Fe +2 and Fe +3 Cu-29 Cu +1 and Cu +2 Ga-31 Ga +3 Cd-48 Cd +2 Nb-41 Nb +3 and Nb +5 Hg-80 Hg +1 and Hg +2 They make the cations that they do, the reason is that some of these atoms can flex and become stable cations even if the electrons are not isoelectric to a noble gas. They just can. Just Look.

9 Let’s make some ionic compounds now. Combine gold with chlorine (do both cations, one at a time) Write the formulas Au + Cl Au +1 + Cl -1 __________ Au + Cl Au +3 + Cl -1 __________ The formulas are not too tough, but what will we call these compounds? They can’t have the same name if they’re different!

10 Let’s make some ionic compounds now. Combine gold with chlorine (do both cations, one at a time) Au + Cl Au +1 + Cl -1 AuCl gold (I) chloride Au + Cl Au +3 + Cl -1 AuCl 3 gold (III) chloride It’s going to take some Roman Numerals to have these names different. The Roman Numeral matches the cation charge. These are called stock names.

11 Combine every type of manganese cation with bromine. Write formulas and stock names for each one. (fill in ion charges) Mn + Br

12 Combine every type of manganese cation with bromine. Write formulas and stock names for each one. (fill in ion charges) Mn +2 + Br -1 MnBr 2 manganese (II) bromide Mn +3 + Br -1 MnBr 3 manganese (III) bromide Mn +4 + Br -1 MnBr 4 manganese (IV) bromide Mn +7 + Br -1 MnBr 7 manganese (VII) bromide

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14 There are 2 kinds of copper oxide, we saw them both in the chemical and physical changes lab. One was a black powder, one was red. Show the two ways copper and oxygen can combine ionically, write the proper formulas with their stock names. Cu + O

15 There are 2 kinds of copper oxide, we saw them both in the chemical and physical changes lab. One was a black powder, one was red. Show the two ways copper and oxygen can combine ionically, write the proper formulas with their stock names. Cu +1 + O -2 Cu 2 O Cu +2 + O -2 CuO Copper (I) oxide Copper (II) oxide Do Not Forget: the roman numeral matches the cation charge!

16 Last one… Combine tantalum (Ta-73) + sulfur (S-16) Ta + S

17 Last one… Combine tantalum (Ta-73) + sulfur (S-16) Ta +5 + S -2 Ta 2 S 5 tantalum sulfide No roman numeral needed, because tantalum only makes one cation (like with sodium, we don’t eat any sodium (I) chloride, do we?)

18 At this point, you should be finished up with the monoatomic ions handout. You should check your grades, make up back work. Electrons Lab is due by Friday. Next Tuesday (in six days) we’ll be celebrating this, so, Read the Naming Compounds Diary, do the 4 drills. Let’s do some drills now.


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