Chapter Menu Ionic Compounds and Metals Section 7.1Section 7.1Ion Formation Section 7.2Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds Section 7.3Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds Section 7.4Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals Exit Click a hyperlink or folder tab to view the corresponding slides.
Section 7-1 Section 7.1 Ion Formation Define a chemical bond. octet rule: atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire eight valence electrons chemical bond cation anion Describe the formation of positive and negative ions. Relate ion formation to electron configuration. Ions are formed when atoms gain or lose valence electrons to achieve a stable octet electron configuration.
Section 7-1 Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together.chemical bond Chemical bonds form by the attraction between the positive nucleus of one atom and the negative electrons of another atom. Or by the attraction between positive and negative ions
Section 7-1 Valence Electrons and Chemical Bonds (cont.) Atom’s try to form the octet—the stable arrangement of eight valence electrons in the outer energy level—by gaining or losing valence electrons.
Section 7-1 Positive Ion Formation A positively charged ion is called a cation.cation This figure illustrates how sodium loses one valence electron to become a sodium cation.
Section 7-1 Positive Ion Formation (cont.) Metals are reactive because they lose valence electrons easily.
Section 7-1 Positive Ion Formation (cont.) Transition metals commonly form 2+ or 3+ ions, but can form greater than 3+ ions. Other relatively stable electron arrangements are referred to as pseudo-noble gas configurations.
Section 7-1 Negative Ion Formation An anion is a negatively charged ion.anion The figure shown here illustrates chlorine gaining an electron to become a chlorine ion.
Section 7-1 Negative Ion Formation (cont.) Nonmetal ions gain the number of electrons required to fill an octet. Some nonmetals can gain or lose electrons to complete an octet.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-1 Section 7.1 Assessment Oxygen gains two electrons to form what kind of ion? A.1– anion B.2– anion C.1+ cation D.2+ cation
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-1 Section 7.1 Assessment Elements with a full octet have which configuration? A.ionic configuration B.halogen configuration C.noble gas configuration D.transition metal configuration
Section 7-2 Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds Describe the formation of ionic bonds and the structure of ionic compounds. compound: a chemical combination of two or more different elements Generalize about the strength of ionic bonds based on the physical properties of ionic compounds. Categorize ionic bond formation as exothermic or endothermic.
Section 7-2 Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds (cont.) ionic bond ionic compound crystal lattice electrolyte lattice energy Oppositely charged ions attract each other, forming electrically neutral ionic compounds.
Section 7-2 Formation of an Ionic Bond The electrostatic force that holds oppositely charged particles together in an ionic compound is called an ionic bond.ionic bond Compounds that contain ionic bonds are called ionic compounds.ionic compounds Binary ionic compounds contain only two different elements—a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion.
Section 7-2 Properties of Ionic Compounds Positive and negative ions exist in a ratio determined by the number of electrons transferred from the metal atom to the non- metal atom. The repeating pattern of particle packing in an ionic compound is called an ionic crystal.
Section 7-2 Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.) The strong attractions among the positive and negative ions result in the formation of the crystal lattice. A crystal lattice is the three-dimensional geometric arrangement of particles, and is responsible for the structure of many minerals.crystal lattice
Section 7-2 Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.) Melting point, boiling point, and hardness depend on the strength of the attraction.
Section 7-2 Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.) In a solid, ions are locked into position and electrons cannot flow freely—solid ions are poor conductors of electricity. Liquid ions or ions in aqueous solution have electrons that are free to move, so they conduct electricity easily. An ion in aqueous solution that conducts electricity is an electrolyte.electrolyte
Section 7-2 Properties of Ionic Compounds (cont.) This figure demonstrates how and why crystals break when an external force is applied.
Section 7-2 Energy and the Ionic Bond Reactions that absorb energy are endothermic. Reactions that release energy are exothermic.
Section 7-2 Energy and the Ionic Bond (cont.) The energy required to separate 1 mol of ions in an ionic compound is referred to as the lattice energy.lattice energy Lattice energy is directly related to the size of the ions that are bonded.
Section 7-2 Energy and the Ionic Bond (cont.) Smaller ions form compounds with more closely spaced ionic charges, and require more energy to separate. Electrostatic force of attraction is inversely related to the distance between the opposite charges. The smaller the ion, the greater the attraction.
Section 7-2 Energy and the Ionic Bond (cont.) The value of lattice energy is also affected by the charge of the ion.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-2 Section 7.2 Assessment Why are solid ionic compounds poor conductors of electricity? A.They are non-metals. B.They are electrolytes. C.They have electrons that cannot flow freely. D.Solids do not conduct electricity.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-2 Section 7.2 Assessment What is the electrostatic charge holding two ions together? A.covalent bond B.pseudo-noble gas bond C.crystal lattice bond D.ionic bond
Section 7-3 Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds Relate a formula unit of an ionic compound to its composition. nonmetal: an element that is generally a gas or a dull, brittle solid and is a poor conductor of heat and electricity Write formulas for ionic compounds and oxyanions. Apply naming conventions to ionic compounds and oxyanions.
Section 7-3 Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.) formula unit monatomic ion oxidation number polyatomic ion oxyanion In written names and formulas for ionic compounds, the cation appears first, followed by the anion.
Section 7-3 Formulas for Ionic Compounds When writing names and formulas for ionic compounds, the cation appears first followed by the anion. Chemists around the world need to communicate with one another, so a standardized system of naming compounds was developed.
Section 7-3 Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.) A formula unit represents the simplest ratio of the ions involved.formula unit Monatomic ions are one-atom ions.Monatomic ions
Section 7-3 Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.) Oxidation number, or oxidation state, is the charge of a monatomic ion.Oxidation number
Describing Ionic Compounds Because there are many different compounds that can be formed by different combinations of the same ions, there must be a naming system that distinguishes between these different compounds The formula of an ionic compound describes the ratio of the ions in the compound
Binary Ionic Compounds Binary compound: a compound made from only two elements (bi – two) Ex: sodium chloride - NaCl How to name binary ionic compounds –The name of the cation is first, the anion is second Na + Cl - –The name of the cation is the name of the metal without any change sodium –The name of the anion uses part of the name of the nonmetal with the suffix -ide chlorine chlor-ide chloride
Metals with Multiple Ions Alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and aluminum all form ions with positive charges equal to the group number –Ca 2+ - Group IIA –Al 3+ - Group IIIA Transition metals have the ability to form more than one type of ion. When metals form more than one type of ion, the name of the ion contains the roman numeral of the charge on the ion o Cu + copper (I) ion o Cu 2+ copper (II) ion
Metals with Multiple Ions Copper (I) oxide Cu 2 O –Each copper ion has a charge of +1 –Oxide ion has a charge of -2 –To have a neutral compound there must be 2 copper ions and 1 oxide ion Copper(II) Oxide CuO o Each copper ion has a charge of of +2 o Oxide ion has a charge of -2 o To have a neutral compound there must be 1 copper ion and 1 oxide ion
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds If you know the name of an ionic compound, you can figure out how to write the formula –Write the symbol of the cation first –Write the symbol of the anion second –Observe charges on anions and cations to determine the ratio of ions in the compound –All compounds are neutral so the total charges of the cations and anions will add up to zero Ex: Na + and S -2 (sodium and sulfide ions) Na S Na 2 S sodium sulfide
Section 7-3 Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.) The symbol for the cation is always written first, followed by the symbol of the anion. Subscripts represent the number of ions of each element in an ionic compound. The total charge must equal zero in an ionic compound.
Polyatomic Ions A compound joined by covalent bonds that has a charge –Poly – many Why is this an ion? Total the number of electrons Hydrogen – 4 Nitrogen - 5
Section 7-3 Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.) Polyatomic ions are ions made up of more than one atom.Polyatomic ions Never change subscripts of polyatomic ions, place in parentheses and write the appropriate subscript outside the parentheses.
Section 7-3 Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.)
Section 7-3 Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds An oxyanion is a polyatomic ion composed of an element (usually a non- metal), bonded to one or more oxygen atoms.oxyanion
Section 7-3 Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
Section 7-3 Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.) Chemical nomenclature is a systematic way of naming compounds. –Name the cation followed by the anion. –For monatomic, cations use the element name. –For monatomic anions, use the root element name and the suffix –ide. –To distinguish between different oxidation states of the same element, the oxidation state is written in parentheses after the name of the cation. –When the compound contains a polyatomic ion, name the cation followed by the name of the polyatomic ion.
Section 7-3 Names for Ions and Ionic Compounds (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-3 Section 7.3 Assessment Which subscripts would you most likely use for an ionic compound containing an alkali metal and a halogen? (Remember, 1 = no written subscript) A.1 and 2 B.2 and 1 C.2 and 3 D.1 and 1
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-3 Section 7.3 Assessment What is the name of the compound CaOH? A.calcium oxide B.calcium(I)oxide C.calcium hydroxide D.calcium peroxide
Section 7-4 Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals Describe a metallic bond. physical property: a characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without altering the sample’s composition Relate the electron sea model to the physical properties of metals. Define alloys, and categorize them into two basic types.
Section 7-4 Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals (cont.) electron sea model delocalized electron metallic bond alloy Metals form crystal lattices and can be modeled as cations surrounded by a “sea” of freely moving valence electrons.
Section 7-4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals Metals are not ionic but share several properties with ionic compounds. Metals also form lattices in the solid state, where 8 to 12 other atoms closely surround each metal atom.
Section 7-4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals (cont.) Within the crowded lattice, the outer energy levels of metal atoms overlap. The electron sea model proposes that all metal atoms in a metallic solid contribute their valence electrons to form a "sea" of electrons.electron sea model The electrons are free to move around and are referred to as delocalized electrons, forming a metallic cation.delocalized electrons
Section 7-4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals (cont.) A metallic bond is the attraction of an metallic cation for delocalized electrons.metallic bond
Section 7-4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals (cont.) Boiling points are much more extreme than melting points because of the energy required to separate atoms from the groups of cations and electrons.
Section 7-4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals (cont.) Metals are malleable because they can be hammered into sheets. Metals are ductile because they can be drawn into wires.
Section 7-4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals (cont.) Mobile electrons around cations make metals good conductors of electricity and heat. As the number of delocalized electrons increases, so does hardness and strength.
Section 7-4 Metal Alloys An alloy is a mixture of elements that has metallic properties.alloy The properties of alloys differ from the elements they contain.
Section 7-4 Two Types of Metal Alloys Substitutional alloys are formed when some atoms in the original metallic solid are replaced by other metals of similar atomic structure. (ex: Brass – zinc atoms replace some of the copper atoms due to similar size and structure) Interstitial alloys are formed when small holes in a metallic crystal are filled with smaller atoms. (ex: steel - carbon atoms fill in holes between iron atoms)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-4 Section 7.4 Assessment The attraction of a metallic cation and delocalized electrons forms what kind of bond? A.ionic B.covalent C.diatomic D.metallic
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 7-4 Section 7.4 Assessment Which property of metals allows them to be easily drawn into wires? A.malleability B.ductility C.conductivity D.durability
Resources Menu Chemistry Online Study Guide Chapter Assessment Standardized Test Practice Image Bank Concepts in Motion
Study Guide 1 Section 7.1 Ion Formation Key Concepts A chemical bond is the force that holds two atoms together. Some atoms form ions to gain stability. This stable configuration involves a complete outer energy level, usually consisting of eight valence electrons. Ions are formed by the loss or gain of valence electrons. The number of protons remains unchanged during ion formation.
Study Guide 2 Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds Key Concepts Ionic compounds contain ionic bonds formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions. Ions in an ionic compound are arranged in a repeating pattern known as a crystal lattice. Ionic compound properties are related to ionic bond strength. Ionic compounds are electrolytes; they conduct an electric current in the liquid phase and in aqueous solution.
Study Guide 2 Section 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds (cont.) Key Concepts Lattice energy is the energy needed to remove 1 mol of ions from its crystal lattice.
Study Guide 3 Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds Key Concepts A formula unit gives the ratio of cations to anions in the ionic compound. A monatomic ion is formed from one atom. The charge of a monatomic ion is its oxidation number. Roman numerals indicate the oxidation number of cations having multiple possible oxidation states. Polyatomic ions consist of more than one atom and act as a single unit.
Study Guide 3 Section 7.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds (cont.) Key Concepts To indicate more than one polyatomic ion in a chemical formula, place parentheses around the polyatomic ion and use a subscript.
Study Guide 4 Section 7.4 Metallic Bonds and the Properties of Metals Key Concepts A metallic bond forms when metal cations attract freely moving, delocalized valence electrons. In the electron sea model, electrons move through the metallic crystal and are not held by any particular atom. The electron sea model explains the physical properties of metallic solids. Metal alloys are formed when a metal is mixed with one or more other elements.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Chapter Assessment 1 Cations form when atoms _______ electrons. A.gain B.lose C.charge D.delocalize
A.A B.B C.C D.D Chapter Assessment 2 What is the repeating pattern of atoms in an ionic solid called? A.crystal lattice B.ionic lattice C.energy lattice D.ionic bonding
A.A B.B C.C D.D Chapter Assessment 3 Give the name of the following: NaClO 4 A.sodium hypochlorite B.sodium chlorite C.sodium chlorate D.sodium perchlorate
A.A B.B C.C D.D Chapter Assessment 4 As the distance between ions in an ionic bond is shortened, A.the energy to break the bond decreases. B.the electrostatic attraction decreases. C.the electrostatic attraction increases. D.the ionic bond changes to a metallic bond.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Chapter Assessment 5 An alloy is what type of substance? A.heterogeneous mixture B.compound C.mixture of elements D.element
A.A B.B C.C D.D STP 1 Which is NOT true about metallic solids? A.Metals are shiny. B.Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. C.Metals are ductile. D.Metals have relatively low boiling points.
A.A B.B C.C D.D STP 2 Electrons in an atom’s outer most energy level are referred to as what? A.ions B.cations C.valence electrons D.noble-gas electrons
A.A B.B C.C D.D STP 3 What is the oxidation state of copper in Cu(II)Cl 2 ? A.1+ B.2+ C.2– D.unable to determine
A.A B.B C.C D.D STP 4 Which elements naturally occur with a full octet of valence electrons? A.alkali metals B.alkali earth metals C.halogens D.noble gases
A.A B.B C.C D.D STP 5 How many electrons are in a full octet? A.10 B.8 C.6 D.4
CIM Table 7.1Electron-Dot Structure Table 7.4Formation of Sodium Chloride
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