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Chemistry 103 Lecture 9. Outline I. Chemical Bonds - Ionic Compounds (CH6) Electron Dot Symbols Lewis Dot Diagrams Predicting Formulas.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry 103 Lecture 9. Outline I. Chemical Bonds - Ionic Compounds (CH6) Electron Dot Symbols Lewis Dot Diagrams Predicting Formulas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry 103 Lecture 9

2 Outline I. Chemical Bonds - Ionic Compounds (CH6) Electron Dot Symbols Lewis Dot Diagrams Predicting Formulas

3 Bonds Chemical bond: attractive force holding two or more atoms together.

4 Bonds Ionic Bonds - electron transfer process. Typically between a metal and a nonmetals Covalent Bonds - electrons shared. Typically involving nonmetals.

5 The Representative Elements Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

6 Rules for Electron Dot Symbols 1. Representative elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons 2. The number of valence electrons is represented by “dots” around the symbol of the representative element. 3. The maximum number of valence electrons for any representative element is 8 - Octet Rule.

7 Learning Check - Aluminum (Al) 1. Number of valence electrons in aluminum is: A) 1 B) 2C) 3 2. In Al, the change in electrons to achieve an octet is: A) loss of 3e - B) gain of 3e - C) a gain of 5e - 3. The Ionic charge of aluminum is: A) 3-B) 5-C) The symbol for the aluminum ion is: A) Al 3+ B) Al 3- C) Al +

8 1. Number of valence electrons in sulfur is: A) 4e - B) 6e - C) 8e - 2. Change in electrons for octet requires a: A) loss of 2e - B) gain of 2e - C) a gain of 4e - 3. Ionic charge of sulfur is: A) 2+ B) 2- C) 4- Learning Check

9 Predicting Ionic Charge The number of electrons an atom loses is related to its position on the periodic table.

10 The Periodic Table and Ions Group IA metals - +1 Group IIA metals - +2 Group IIIA metals - +3 Group VIIA nonmetals - -1 Group VIA nonmetals - -2 Group VA nonmetals - -3

11 11 Salt is An Ionic Compound Sodium chloride in “table salt” is an example of an ionic compound. Chemical Formula: NaCl Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

12 Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds For a neutral species, the number of electrons lost and gained must be equal. The amount of positive charge must equal the amount of negative charge. Formulas of ionic compounds  Symbol for the positive ion is always written first  The charges on the ions are NOT shown in the formula  The subscripts in the formula give the combining ratio for the ions

13 Lewis Dot Diagrams Using the Electron Dot Symbols, write the Lewis Dot Diagram and the Chemical Formula for  Na and Cl

14 Ionic Formula of NaCl In an ionic formula, The symbol of the metal is written first followed by the symbol of the nonmetal The charges of the ions in the compound are not shown Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

15 Lewis Dot Diagrams continued… Example: What is the Lewis Dot Diagram and the chemical formula for the ionic compound formed between Mg and Cl?

16 Charge Balance In MgCl 2 In MgCl 2 An Mg atom loses two valence electrons Two Cl atoms each gain one electron Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

17 Dot Diagrams & Chemical Formulas

18 Write the Lewis Dot Diagrams and give the chemical formulas for the ionic compounds formed between the following elements  Na and O  Ca and O  Al and O

19 Writing Ionic Formulas from Charges Charge balance is used to write the formula for sodium nitride, a compound containing Na + and N 3−. Na + 3Na + N 3- = Na 3 N Na + 3(+1) + 1(3-) = 0

20 Ionic Chemical Formulas Give the chemical formula for the ionic compounds made from the following elements: 1. K and F 2. Mg and S 3. Al and S 4. Li and N

21 Chapter 2 - Measurements Measurements Sig Figs”  Identifying  Rounding  Math Operations Dimensional Analysis  Percent Factor  Density

22 Chapter 3 - Matter (and Energy) Chemical vs.Physical Matter Classified  Element  Compound  Homogeneous Mixture  Heterogeneous Mixture

23 Chapter 4 - Atoms & Elements Periodic Table Symbols for Elements The Atom  History  Subatomic Particles Atomic Symbols  Isotopes, Ions Atomic Mass (amu)

24 Chapter 5 (Ch4) - Electronic Structure Electromagnetic Radiation Classical vs Quantum  History Quantum Numbers Electron Configurations Orbital Diagrams Valence Atomic Radii

25 Practice Problem The density of diamond is 3.51g/mL. What is the volume (in liters) of the Hope diamond if it has a mass of 44.0 carats? (1 carat = 0.200g)

26 Practice Multiple Choice 1). Which species has 16 neutrons? a. 31 P b. 34 S 2- c. 36 Cl d. 89 Br - e. none of these (p = 15) (p = 14) (p=17) (p=35) 2). An isotope of which element is used as the standard for the relative mass scale for atoms? a. nitrogen b. oxygen c. hydrogen d. golde. none of these

27 Practice Multiple Choice 3). Which of the following elements is expected to be chemically similar to calcium (Ca). a. K b. Sc c. Cl d. Mge. Al 4). A g-orbital has an “l” quantum number of 4. How many total electrons can this subshell hold? a. 4b. 6c. 18d. 10e. 14 l = 4, m l = -4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4 (9 values = 9 orbitals x 2 = 18 electrons)


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