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7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding.

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Presentation on theme: "7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding."— Presentation transcript:

1 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding 7.1 Ions 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds 7.3 Bonding in Metals

2 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. CHEMISTRY & YOU Where does table salt come from? In some countries, salt is obtained by the evaporation of seawater. In other countries, salt is mined from rock deposits deep underground.

3 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds What is the electrical charge of an ionic compound?

4 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Sodium chloride, or table salt, is an ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and chloride anions. An ionic compound is a compound composed of cations and anions.

5 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 5 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. The total positive charge of the cations equals the total negative charge of the anions.

6 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds are called ionic bonds. Anions and cations have opposite charges and attract one another by means of electrostatic forces.

7 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 7 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds Sodium and chlorine atoms combine in a one-to- one ratio, and both ions have stable octets. When sodium and chlorine react to form a compound, the sodium atom transfers its one valence electron to the chlorine atom.

8 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 8 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds Each bromine atom has seven valence electrons and readily gains one additional electron. Three bromine atoms combine with each aluminum atom. Aluminum metal (Al) and the nonmetal bromine (Br 2 ) react violently to form the ionic solid aluminum bromide (AlBr 3 ).

9 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 9 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units A chemical formula shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance. NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride.

10 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 10 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units Ionic compounds do not exist as discrete units, but as collections of positively and negatively charged ions arranged in repeating patterns.

11 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 11 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units The chemical formula of an ionic compound refers to a ratio known as a formula unit. A formula unit is the lowest whole- number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.

12 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 12 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units For sodium chloride, the lowest whole- number ratio of the ions is 1:1 (one Na + ion to each Cl – ion). The formula unit for sodium chloride is NaCl. Although ionic charges are used to derive the correct formula, they are not shown when you write the formula unit of the compound.

13 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 13 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Use electron dot structures to predict the formulas of the ionic compounds formed from the following elements: Sample Problem 7.1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds a.potassium and oxygen b.magnesium and nitrogen

14 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 14 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Analyze Identify the relevant concepts. 1 Sample Problem 7.1 Atoms of metals lose valence electrons when forming an ionic compound. Atoms of nonmetals gain electrons. Enough atoms of each element must be used in the formula so that electrons lost equal electrons gained.

15 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 15 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. a.Start with the atoms. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. 2 Sample Problem 7.1 K and O

16 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 16 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. a.In order to have a completely filled valence shell, the oxygen atom must gain two electrons. These electrons come from two potassium atoms, each of which loses one electron. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. 2 Sample Problem 7.1 K O K + K+K+ K+K+ O 2–2–

17 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 17 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. a.Express the electron dot structure as a formula. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. 2 Sample Problem 7.1 The formula of the compound formed is K 2 O (potassium oxide).

18 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 18 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. b.Start with the atoms. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. 2 Sample Problem 7.1 Mg and N

19 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 19 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. b.Each nitrogen atom needs three electrons to have an octet, but each magnesium atom can lose only two electrons. Three magnesium atoms are needed for every two nitrogen atoms. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. 2 Sample Problem 7.1 N N 3–3– +Mg 2+ N Mg 2+ N 3–3– Mg Mg Mg

20 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 20 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. b.Express the electron dot structure as a formula. Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. 2 Sample Problem 7.1 The formula of the compound formed is Mg 3 N 2 (magnesium nitride).

21 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 21 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Use electron dot structures to determine the formula of the ionic compound formed when calcium reacts with fluorine.

22 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 22 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Use electron dot structures to determine the formula of the ionic compound formed when calcium reacts with fluorine. F +Ca 2+ F – Ca F – F CaF 2

23 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 23 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds What are three properties of ionic compounds?

24 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 24 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. The component ions in such crystals are arranged in repeating three- dimensional patterns. The beauty of crystalline solids comes from the orderly arrangement of their component ions.

25 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 25 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds Each ion is attracted strongly to each of its neighbors, and repulsions are minimized. The large attractive forces result in a very stable structure.

26 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 26 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds generally have high melting points.

27 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 27 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Would you expect to find sodium chloride in underground rock deposits as a solid, liquid, or gas? Explain. CHEMISTRY & YOU

28 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 28 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Would you expect to find sodium chloride in underground rock deposits as a solid, liquid, or gas? Explain. CHEMISTRY & YOU Sodium chloride is found in underground rock deposits as a solid. Like most ionic compounds, sodium chloride has a high melting point (about 800°C).

29 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 29 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal. In NaCl, each ion has a coordination number of 6. –The coordination number of Na + is 6 because each Na + ion is surrounded by six Cl – ions. –The coordination number of Cl – is also 6 because each Cl – ion is surrounded by six Na + ions.

30 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 30 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8. Each Cs + ion is surrounded by eight Cl – ions. Each Cl – ion is surrounded by eight Cs + ions.

31 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 31 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), or rutile, forms tetragonal crystals. The coordination number for the cation (Ti 4+ ) is 6. The coordination number of the anion (O 2– ) is 3. –Each Ti 4+ ion is surrounded by six O 2– ions. –Each O 2– ion is surrounded by three Ti 4+ ions.

32 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 32 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water.

33 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 33 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds When sodium chloride is melted, the orderly crystal structure breaks down. If a voltage is applied across this molten mass, cations migrate freely to one electrode and anions migrate to the other. This movement of electrons allows electric current to flow between the electrodes through an external wire. To (+) electrode To (–) electrode Inert metal electrodes Flow of electrons Current meter Power source Cl – Na +

34 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 34 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds This solar facility uses molten NaCl for its ability to absorb and hold a large quantity of heat, which is used to generate electricity.

35 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 35 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds also conduct electric current if they are dissolved in water. When dissolved, the ions are free to move about in the solution.

36 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 36 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. When can ionic compounds conduct an electric current? A. Only when melted B.When melted or dissolved in water C.Only when dissolved in water D.When solid or melted

37 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 37 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. When can ionic compounds conduct an electric current? A. Only when melted B.When melted or dissolved in water C.Only when dissolved in water D.When solid or melted

38 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 38 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Key Concepts Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. Ionic compounds generally have high melting points. Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water.

39 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 39 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Glossary Terms ionic compound: a compound composed of positive and negative ions ionic bond: the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together chemical formula: an expression that indicates the number and type of atoms present in the smallest representative unit of a substance

40 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 40 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Glossary Terms formula unit: the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound; in magnesium chloride, the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is 1:2 and the formula unit is MgCl 2 coordination number: the number of ions of opposite charge that surround each ion in a crystal

41 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 41 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. The electrostatic forces between the oppositely charged ions hold the cations and anions together in an ionic compound. Ionic compounds generally have high melting points and can conduct an electric current in solution and in the molten state. BIG IDEA Bonding and Interactions

42 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > 42 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. END OF 7.2


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