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Naming Ionic Compounds. Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. MetalsNonmetals Metals ________________ electrons. This gives.

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Presentation on theme: "Naming Ionic Compounds. Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. MetalsNonmetals Metals ________________ electrons. This gives."— Presentation transcript:

1 Naming Ionic Compounds

2 Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. MetalsNonmetals Metals ________________ electrons. This gives them a ____ charge. Positive ions are called ___________. lose / donate + Nonmetals _____________ electrons. This gives them a ____ charge. Negative ions are called ___________. gain / accept _ cations anions

3 Remember that the charge of an ion can be determined by its place on the Periodic Table or Look for the Roman Numeral!

4 For each elements on your notes, predict the charge of its most common ion using the periodic table

5 When metals lose electrons they become ions, but their name does not change. Rules for Naming Ions NaNa + + e - sodium electron MgMg e - magnesium 2 electrons

6 When nonmetals gain electrons they become ions, and their name does change. Rules for Naming Ions F-F- F + e - fluorine fluoride electron S -2 S + 2e - sulfursulfide2 electrons

7 Rules for Naming Ions 2. Changing the name of nonmetals: root of element name + -ide = name of ion Examples: The name of chlorine’s ion: The name of nitrogen’s ion: chlor- + -ide = chloride nitr- + -ide = nitride 1. The names of metals do not change.

8 Examples of naming ions: The name of calcium’s ion: The name of oxygen’s ion: calcium (The names of metals don’t change!) ox- + -ide = oxide The name of aluminum’s ion: aluminum (The names of metals don’t change!)

9 Write the name of each of the ions on your notes. sulfide nitride potassium oxide lithium bromide chloride hydrogen (+), hydride (-)

10 There are also ions that form after elements have shared electrons. These ions are known as polyatomic ions, and each polyatomic ion already has a name.

11 Write the name of each of the polyatomic ions on your notes using your reference sheet as a guide. sulfate permanganate hydroxide carbonate sulfite nitrate

12 Steps for Naming Ionic Compounds CaBr 2 Step 1: Write the name of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the name of the nonmetal ion. Step 3: YOU ARE DONE! It is that easy. calciumbromide

13 1. NaF sodiumfluoride 2. MgO magnesiumoxide 3. SrCl 2 strontiumchloride 4. Li 2 S lithiumsulfide 5. CaO calciumoxide 6. KI potassiumiodide

14 1. NH 4 F ammoniumfluoride 2. CaSO 4 calciumsulfate 3. Mg(NO 3 ) 2 magnesiumnitrate 4. NaOH sodiumhydroxide When polyatomic ions are used, simply use the name of the polyatomic ion in the compound.

15 Name the ionic compounds that are found on your notes. calcium chloride potassium sulfide cesium chloride barium oxide ammonium chloride potassium permanganate magnesium sulfate sodium bromide aluminum phosphide

16 You can also determine the formula of an ionic compound from its name. To do this, you will need to use what you already know about the Periodic Table. magnesium iodide Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the symbol of the nonmetal ion. Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table. Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions. MgI +2- MgI 2

17 This is just as easy to do with polyatomic ions. You just need to use the name of the polyatomic ion. strontium nitrate Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the formula of the polyatomic ion. Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the table of polyatomic ions. Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions. SrNO Sr(NO 3 ) 2

18 Be very careful that you do not mix up the names of ions. This is very common for beginners to naming. Decide which name goes with each ion. N -3 NO 3 - nitrate nitride S -2 SO 3 -2 sulfite sulfide P -3 PO 4 -3 phosphate phosphide

19 Remember that the names of transition metals include their charge because their charges are less predictable. What are the charges of the transition metals below: Iron (II) _______Iron (III) _______ Copper (II) _______Copper (I) _______ Tin (IV) _______Tin (II) _______ Lead (II) _______Lead (IV) _______ We know they are positive because metals are always positive.

20 The charges of the transition metals are important when you are determining the formula of an ionic compound. iron (III) oxide Step 1: Write the symbol of the cation. Step 2: Write the symbol of the anion. Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the roman numerals. Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions. FeO +3-2 Fe 2 O 3

21 Helpful Hint: If the ion ends in –ide, it is probably from the periodic table. If the ion ends in –ate or –ite, it is a polyatomic ion. Examples: SO 4 -2 sulfate S -2 sulfide NO 2 - nitrite N -3 nitride sulfite SO 3 -2 nitrate NO 3 -

22 Write the formula of each of the ionic compounds named on your notes. KI SnCl 4 BaSO 4 NaCl SrS CuCO 3 AlBr 3 Li 3 N

23 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds

24 Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. Sharing electrons creates a covalent bond Nonmetals can _______ electrons to form a covalent bond. This creates a ___________. share molecule Nonmetals shared electrons

25 Determining if a compound is ionic or covalent is easy. Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals. What elements do ionic compounds contain? What elements do covalent compounds contain?

26 Decide whether the compounds on your notes are ionic or covalent. I CC C I I

27 Important Facts: Because hydrogen only has 1 proton and 1 electron, it behaves differently than any other element on the periodic table of elements. Hydrogen can donate its 1 electron. H+H+ Hydrogen can gain 1 electron. H-H- Hydrogen can share electrons. This means that hydrogen can act as either a metal or a nonmetal! H2H2

28 There are 7 elements that exist in nature as diatomic molecules. What elements exist as diatomic molecules? H 2, N 2, O 2, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2

29 There are millions of covalent compounds. These can be classified into many different types of compounds. Each type of compound has a different set of rules for naming. You will be learning about the easiest type of covalent compound to name: What does binary mean? Binary means 2. Binary covalent compounds are between 2 different nonmetals. Binary Covalent Compounds

30 Nonmetals can share electrons in many different ways. This means that two nonmetals can create multiple compounds together. CO 2 CO Each of these contains a different ratio of elements. Because of this, we have to make sure that the name of the compound explains the correct ratio. carbon and oxygen PCl 5 PCl 3 phosphorous and chlorine N2O3N2O3 N2O4N2O4 nitrogen and oxygen

31 To show the correct ratio of elements, we use prefixes.

32 Steps for Naming Binary Covalent Compounds N2O4N2O4 Step 1: Write the name of the first nonmetal. Step 2: Write the name of the second nonmetal changing its ending to -ide. Step 3: Add prefixes to specify how many of each element are present. nitrogenoxide dinitrogentetroxide

33 Rules for Using Prefixes Rule 1: Prefixes are only for BINARY COVALENT compounds. Rule 2: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1. Rule 3: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide. Example: CO 2 is carbon dioxide, and not monocarbon dioxide. Example: CO is carbon monoxide, and not carbon monooxide.

34 How would you write each of the prefixes in front of oxide? mono- ____________di- ____________ tri- ____________tetra- ____________ penta- ____________hexa- ____________ hepta- ____________octa- ____________ nona- ____________deca- ____________ monoxidedioxide trioxide tetroxide pentoxide hexoxide heptoxide octoxide nonoxide decoxide Remember: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide. Leave -i alone.

35 Name the binary covalent compounds that are found on your notes. carbon dioxide carbon disulfide phosphorous tribromide phosphorous pentabromide diphosphorous pentasulfide dinitrogen monosulfide silicon disulfide nitrogen tribromide dinitrogen tetrachloride

36 Because of the prefixes, it is very easy to go from the name of a binary covalent compound to its formula. dinitrogen tetrafluoride Step 1: Write the symbol of the first nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix. Step 2: Write the symbol of the second nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix. N2N2 F4F4

37 Write the formulas of the binary covalent compounds in your notes. CCl 4 PCl 5 N2ON2O CS BH 3 S 2 Br 6 SiS 2 PI 3 NCl 3 IF 7 N2O4N2O4 PCl 3 CO ICl S4N4S4N4 H2OH2O ClF 5 NO 2

38 Naming Ionic and Covalent Compounds Review

39 Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. This is what creates compounds! Metals ________________ electrons. This gives them a ____ charge. Positive ions are called ___________. lose / donate + Nonmetals _____________ electrons. This gives them a ____ charge. Negative ions are called ___________. gain / accept _ cations anions

40 Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. What elements do ionic compounds contain? Metals Nonmetals

41 Steps for Naming Ionic Compounds MgCl 2 Step 1: Write the name of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the name of the nonmetal ion. YOU ARE DONE! It is that easy. magnesiumchloride Remember that we change the name of nonmetal ions to –ide.

42 Chemical reactions occur when atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. Sharing electrons creates a covalent bond Nonmetals can _______ electrons to form a covalent bond. This creates a ___________. share molecule Nonmetals shared electrons

43 Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals. What elements do covalent compounds contain? Nonmetals

44 Steps for Naming Covalent Compounds P2S4P2S4 Step 1: Write the name of the first nonmetal. Step 2: Write the name of the second nonmetal changing its ending to -ide. Step 3: Add prefixes to specify how many of each element are present. phosphoroussulfide diphosphorous tetrasulfide

45 Rules for Using Prefixes with Covalent Compounds Rule 1: Prefixes are only for COVALENT compounds. Rule 2: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1. Rule 3: Remove the -o or -a from a prefix before adding it to oxide. Example: PCl 3 is phosphorous trichloride, and not monophosphorous trichloride. Example: N 2 O 4 is nitrogen tetroxide, and not nitrogen tetraoxide.

46 Determining if a compound is ionic or covalent is easy. Ionic compounds contain a metal and a nonmetal. What elements do ionic compounds contain? Covalent compounds contain only nonmetals. What elements do covalent compounds contain?

47 Decide whether the compounds on your notes are ionic or covalent. I CII C CII ICCI

48 Once you decide if a compound is ionic or covalent you know whether or not to use prefixes. Only COVALENT COMPOUNDS use PREFIXES! Do NOT make the mistake of using prefixes with ionic compounds. You will be forced to decide between answer choices with and without prefixes on your exam. Know the difference!

49 Steps for Naming a Compound Step 1: Decide if the compound is ionic or covalent. Step 2: Write the name of the first element as it appears on the periodic table, change the name of the second element to end with -ide. Step 3: If, and only if, the compound is covalent, add prefixes. Ionic compounds are finished at this point.

50 1. NH 4 Cl ammoniumchloride 2. MgSO 3 magnesiumsulfite 3. Ca(NO 2 ) 2 calciumnitrite 4. KOH potassiumhydroxide Remember, if polyatomic ions appear in an ionic compound, simply use the name of the ion as it appears in the table of polyatomic ions.

51 Write the names of the compounds that appear on your notes. carbon tetrabromide carbon monosulfide sodium permanganate strontium iodide potassium sulfate dinitrogen tetrasulfide magnesium nitrate silicon tetrachloride diphosphorous pentoxide

52 Determining the Formula of an Ionic Compound from Its Name potassium sulfide Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the symbol of the nonmetal ion. Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table. Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions. KS +-2 K2SK2S

53 This is just as easy to do with polyatomic ions. You just need to use the table of polyatomic ions found on the naming compounds reference sheet. barium sulfate Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the formula of the polyatomic ion. Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table and the table of polyatomic ions. Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions. BaSO BaSO 4 The charges are the same, so they cancel!

54 Be very careful that you do not mix up the names of ions. This is very common for beginners to naming. Decide which name goes with each ion. N -3 NO 2 - nitrite nitride S -2 SO 4 -2 sulfate sulfide P -3 PO 4 -3 phosphate phosphide

55 Remember that the names of transition metals include their charge because their charges are less predictable. What are the charges of the transition metals below: Tin (IV) _______Tin (II) _______ Lead (II) _______Lead (IV) _______ Iron (II) _______Iron (III) _______ Copper (II) _______Copper (I) _______ We know they are positive because metals are always positive. d-block

56 The charges of the transition metals are important when you are determining the formula of an ionic compound. copper (II) nitrate Step 1: Write the symbol of the metal ion. Step 2: Write the symbol of the polyatomic ion. Step 3: Determine the charges using the periodic table, polyatomic ions table, or the roman numerals. Step 4: Determine the formula from the ions. CuNO Cu(NO 3 ) 2

57 Because of the prefixes, it is very easy to go from the name of a binary covalent compound to its formula. dihydrogen monoxide Step 1: Write the symbol of the first nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix. Step 2: Write the symbol of the second nonmetal and the subscript that matches the prefix. H2H2 O

58 Remember: The prefix mono- is never used on the first element of a binary covalent compound. Without a prefix it is assumed that there is only 1. Example: carbon dioxide CO 2

59 Write the formulas of the compounds that appear on your notes based on their names. HCl BaF 2 SnS N2ON2O CS 2 S 2 Cl 6 Na 3 PO 4 PtCl 2


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