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 e-’s responsible for chem props of atoms  in outer energy level  s and p e-’s in outer energy level  Core e-’s – energy levels below.

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Presentation on theme: " e-’s responsible for chem props of atoms  in outer energy level  s and p e-’s in outer energy level  Core e-’s – energy levels below."— Presentation transcript:

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4  e-’s responsible for chem props of atoms  in outer energy level  s and p e-’s in outer energy level  Core e-’s – energy levels below.

5 1) same outer e- configuration 2) same valence e-’s  valence e-’s easily determined  equal to group # for representative element  2A: Be, Mg, Ca, etc. have 2 valence e-’s

6  valence e-’s  symbol represents nucleus & core e-’s  Each side = orbital (s or p)  dot = valence e- (8 max)  don’t pair up until they have to (Hund’s rule) X (s) (p x ) (p z ) (p y )

7 Electron Dot diagram for Nitrogen l Nitrogen has 5 valence e- l write symbol N l put first 2 e- on rt side l Add remaining e-’s CCW

8 The Octet Rule l Noble gases unreactive (Ch 6) l Octet Rule: noble gas configuration l 8 outer level (stable) l noble gas has 8 e-’s in outer level l (He has 2)

9  Metals lose e-’s to attain a noble gas configuration (NGC).  They make + ions (cations)  Na 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1 valence e-  Na 1+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (NGC w/ 8 valence e-’s)

10  Metals have few valence e-’s (usually 3 or less); calcium has only 2 valence e-’s Ca

11  Metals few valence e-’s  Metals lose Ca

12  Form + ions Ca 2+ NO DOTS shown for cation “calcium ion”. This is named the “calcium ion”.

13  Scandium (21)  e- configuration is: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 1  lose 2e - (2+), or lose 3e - (3+) Sc = Sc 2+ Scandium (II) ion Scandium (III) ion Sc = Sc 3+ Sc

14  Silver (47)  Predicted configuration is: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 9  Actual configuration is: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 1 4d 10 Ag = Ag 1+ (can’t lose any more, charges of 3+ or greater are uncommon)

15  Silver did the best job it could, but it did not achieve true NGC  “pseudo-noble gas configuration”

16  Nonmetals gain e-’s to attain NGC  - ions (anions)  S = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 4 = 6 valence e-  S 2- = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 = NGC  Halide ions - ions from halogens that gain e-’s

17  Nonmetals have many valence e-’s (usually 5+)  gain e-’s P 3- (called “phosphide ion”, and should show dots)

18  All atoms react to achieve NGC  Noble gases… s 2 p 6  8 valence e-’s (stable)  octet rule Ar Electron dot activity

19 Practice problems p. 193  1. Write the name and symbol of the ion formed when  A. A sulfur atom gains two electrons  B. An aluminum atom loses three electrons

20 Practice problems p. 193  2. how many electrons are lost or gained in forming each ion?  A. Ba 2+ B. As 3- C. Cu 2+

21  OBJECTIVES:  Explain the electrical charge of an ionic compound.

22  OBJECTIVES:  Describe three properties of ionic compounds.

23  Anions & cations – (+ and -)  electrostatic forces  Formula unit - simplest ratio of elements in ionic cmpd  bond thru transfer (lose/gain) of e-’s  e-’s transferred to achieve NGC

24 Na Cl metal (sodium) loses one valence e- Cl needs 1 e- for octet

25 Na + Cl - NOTE: NO DOTS shown for cation Ionic Bonding 0:38 dot & cross diagrams 2:57

26  All e-’s must be accounted for,  each atom has NGC (stable) CaP combining calcium and phosphorus:

27 CaP

28 Ca 2+ P

29 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P Ca

30 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca

31 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca P

32 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P

33 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P Ca

34 Ionic Bonding Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+ P 3- Ca 2+

35 Ionic Bonding = Ca 3 P 2 Formula Unit chemical formula - shows kinds and numbers of atoms in smallest representative particle of substance. Formula Unit - smallest representative particle in ionic cmpd Ionic bonds 6:28

36 1. Crystalline solids - regular repeating arrangement of ions in the solid: Fig. 7.9, page 197  Ions strongly bonded  Rigid structure 2. High melting points  Coordination number- # of ions of opposite charge surrounding it Chemistry of salt 6:23

37 - Page 198 Coordination Numbers: Both the sodium and chlorine have 6 Maximizes contact btwn opp charges Both the cesium and chlorine have 8 Each titanium has 6, and each oxygen has 3 NaCl CsCl TiO 2

38 3. Melted ionic cmpds conduct  Crystal structure breaks down  ions free to move (molten or aqueous)

39  OBJECTIVES:  Model the valence electrons of metal atoms.

40  OBJECTIVES:  Describe the arrangement of atoms in a metal.

41  OBJECTIVES:  Explain the importance of alloys.

42  How metal atoms are held together in the solid.  Metals hold on to their valence e-’s weakly.  positive ions (cations) floating in sea of e-’s (Fig. 7.12, p.201)

43  e-’s free to move thru solid.  Metals conduct electricity

44  Hammered / shaped  ductile - drawn into wires.  malleability & ductility explained in terms of mobility of valence e-’s

45 - Page 201 1) Ductility2) Malleability Due to the mobility of the valence electrons, metals have: and Notice that the ionic crystal breaks due to ion repulsion!

46 Force

47  Mobile e-’s allow atoms to slide by  like ball bearings in oil Force

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49  Strong Repulsion breaks crystal apart, b/c similar ions next to each other Force

50  Metals are crystalline  Metals w/ 1 type of atom simplest crystalline solid  Compact & orderly patterns Fig p.202: 1. Body-centered cubic: Fig p.202:  every atom has 8 neighbors (except atoms on surface)  Na, K, Fe, Cr, W

51 2. Face-centered cubic:  every atom has 12 neighbors  Cu, Ag, Au, Al, Pb

52 3. Hexagonal close-packed  12 neighbors  different pattern due to hexagonal  Mg, Zn, Cd

53  We use metals every day, few pure metals  Alloys made by melting a mixture of ingredients, then cooling  Brass: alloy of Cu and Zn  Bronze: Cu and Sn

54  Properties superior to pure element  Sterling Ag (92.5% Ag, 7.5% Cu)  harder than pure Ag  Soft enough for jewelry & tableware  Steels important  corrosion resistant, ductility, hardness, toughness, cost efficient

55  Table 7.3, p.203 – lists alloys  Types:  a) substitutional alloy- atoms in components are about same size  b) interstitial alloy- atomic sizes differ;  smaller atoms fit in spaces btwn larger  “Amalgam”- dental fillings, contains 50%Hg, 22%Ag, 14%Sn, 8%Cu

56 Alchemy  Turning cheap metals into “gold”

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