Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature PO 4 3- phosphate ion C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid Chemistry 1: Chapter 9 Chemistry 1 Honors: Chapter 4 ICP: Chapter."— Presentation transcript:
Nomenclature PO 4 3- phosphate ion C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid Chemistry 1: Chapter 9 Chemistry 1 Honors: Chapter 4 ICP: Chapter 20 SAVE PAPER AND INK!!! When you print out the notes on PowerPoint, print "Handouts" instead of "Slides" in the print setup. Also, turn off the backgrounds (Tools>Options>Print>UNcheck "Background Printing")!
Forms of Chemical Bonds There are 3 forms bonding atoms:There are 3 forms bonding atoms: Ionic—complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains)Ionic—complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains) Covalent—some valence electrons shared between atomsCovalent—some valence electrons shared between atoms _________ – holds atoms of a metal together_________ – holds atoms of a metal together Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent.
Common Names A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name.A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. Chemicals that should always be named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are:Chemicals that should always be named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are: H 2 Owater, not dihydrogen monoxideH 2 Owater, not dihydrogen monoxide NH 3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydrideNH 3 ammonia, not nitrogen trihydride
CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND A neutral compound requires equal number of + equal number of + and - charges. A neutral compound requires equal number of + equal number of + and - charges. COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS Na + + Cl - --> NaCl
Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 0 Cd +2
Properties of Ionic Compounds Forming NaCl from Na and Cl 2 A metal atom can transfer an electron to a nonmetal.A metal atom can transfer an electron to a nonmetal. The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.
Some Ionic Compounds Mg 2+ + N -3 ----> Mg 3 N 2 magnesium nitride Sn 4+ + O 2- ----> SnO 2 Tin (IV) oxide calcium fluoride Ca 2+ + 2 F - ---> CaF 2
Formulas of Ionic Compounds Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions atoms ions – Na + F : Na + : F : NaF sodium + fluorine sodium fluoride formula Charge balance: 1+ 1- = 0
Writing a Formula Write the formula for the ionic compound that will form between Ba 2+ and Cl . Solution: 1. Balance charge with + and – ions 2. Write the positive ion of metal first, and the negative ion Ba 2+ Cl Cl 3. Write the number of ions needed as subscripts BaCl 2
Learning Check Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na +, S 2- a) NaS b) Na 2 Sc) NaS 2 2. Al 3+, Cl - a) AlCl 3 b) AlCl c) Al 3 Cl 3. Mg 2+, N 3- a) MgN b) Mg 2 N 3 c) Mg 3 N 2
Solution 1. Na +, S 2- b) Na 2 S 2. Al 3+, Cl - a) AlCl 3 3. Mg 2+, N 3- c) Mg 3 N 2
Naming Compounds 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride Binary Ionic Compounds:
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Examples: NaCl ZnI 2 Al 2 O 3 sodium chloride zinc iodide aluminum oxide
Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds: Na 3 Nsodium ________________ KBrpotassium________________ Al 2 O 3 aluminum ________________ MgS_________________________
Transition Metals Elements that can have more than one possible charge MUST have a Roman Numeral to indicate the charge on the individual ion. 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ Cu +, Cu 2+ Fe 2+, Fe 3+ copper(I) ion iron(II) ion copper (II) ion iron(III) ion
Names of Variable Ions These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because they can have more than one possible charge: anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al (You should already know the charges on these!) Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. FeCl 3 (Fe 3+ ) iron (III) chloride CuCl (Cu + ) copper (I) chloride SnF 4 (Sn 4+ ) tin (IV) fluoride PbCl 2 (Pb 2+ )lead (II) chloride Fe 2 S 3 (Fe 3+ )iron (III) sulfide
Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these)
Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr 2 iron (_____) bromide CuClcopper (_____) chloride SnO 2 ___(_____ ) ______________ Fe 2 O 3 ________________________ Hg 2 S________________________
NO 3 - nitrate ion NO 2 - nitrite ion Polyatomic Ions
You can make additional polyatomic ions by adding a H + to the ion! CO 3 -2 is carbonate HCO 3 – is hydrogen carbonate H 2 PO 4 – is dihydrogen phosphate HSO 4 – is hydrogen sulfate Polyatomic Ions
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Writing Formulas Write each ion, cation first. Don’t show charges in the final formula. Overall charge must equal zero. If charges cancel, just write symbols. If not, use subscripts to balance charges. Use parentheses to show more than one of a particular polyatomic ion. Use Roman numerals indicate the ion’s charge when needed (stock system)
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Sodium Sulfate Na + and SO 4 -2 Na 2 SO 4 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe +3 and OH - Fe(OH) 3 Ammonium carbonate NH 4 + and CO 3 –2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3
Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO 3 b) Al(NO) 3 c) Al(NO 3 ) 3 2. copper(II) nitrate a) CuNO 3 b) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 c) Cu 2 (NO 3 ) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOHb) Fe 3 OHc) Fe(OH) 3 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH) 4 b) Sn(OH) 2 c) Sn 4 (OH)
Naming Ternary Compounds Contains at least 3 elements There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion (it helps to circle the ions) Examples: NaNO 3 Sodium nitrate K 2 SO 4 Potassium sulfate Al(HCO 3 ) 3 Aluminum bicarbonate or Aluminum hydrogen carbonate
Learning Check Match each set with the correct name: 1. Na 2 CO 3 a) magnesium sulfite MgSO 3 b) magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 c) sodium carbonate 2.Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 a) calcium carbonate CaCO 3 b) calcium phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 c) calcium bicarbonate
Mixed Practice! Name the following: 1.Na 2 O 2.CaCO 3 3.PbS 2 4.Sn 3 N 2 5.Cu 3 PO 4 6.HgF 2
Mixed Up… The Other Way Write the formula: 1.Copper (II) chlorate 2.Calcium nitride 3.Aluminum carbonate 4.Potassium bromide 5.Barium fluoride 6.Cesium hydroxide
Naming Molecular Compounds CH 4 methane BCl 3 boron trichloride CO 2 Carbon dioxide All are formed from two or more nonmetals. Ionic compounds generally involve a metal and nonmetal (NaCl)
Molecular (Covalent) Nomenclature for two nonmetals Prefix System (binary compounds) 1.Less electronegative atom comes first. 2.Add prefixes to indicate # of atoms. Omit mono- prefix on the FIRST element. Mono- is OPTIONAL on the SECOND element (in this class, it’s NOT optional!). 3.Change the ending of the second element to -ide.
CCl 4 N 2 O SF 6 carbon tetrachloride dinitrogen monoxide sulfur hexafluoride Molecular Nomenclature: Examples
arsenic trichloride dinitrogen pentoxide tetraphosphorus decoxide AsCl 3 N 2 O 5 P 4 O 10 More Molecular Examples
Learning Check Fill in the blanks to complete the following names of covalent compounds. CO carbon ______oxide CO 2 carbon _______________ PCl 3 phosphorus _______chloride CCl 4 carbon ________chloride N 2 O_____nitrogen _____oxide
Learning Check 1.P 2 O 5 a) phosphorus oxide b) phosphorus pentoxide c) diphosphorus pentoxide 2.Cl 2 O 7 a) dichlorine heptoxide b) dichlorine oxide c) chlorine heptoxide 3. Cl 2 a) chlorine b) dichlorine c) dichloride
Overall strategy for naming chemical compounds.
A flow chart for naming binary compounds.
Mixed Review Name the following compounds: 1. CaO a) calcium oxideb) calcium(I) oxide c) calcium (II) oxide 2. SnCl 4 a) tin tetrachlorideb) tin(II) chloride c) tin(IV) chloride 3. N 2 O 3 a) nitrogen oxide b) dinitrogen trioxide c) nitrogen trioxide
Solution Name the following compounds: 1. CaO 2. SnCl 4 3.N 2 O 3 a) calcium oxide c) tin(IV) chloride b) Dinitrogen trioxide
Mixed Practice 1.BaI 2 2.P 4 S 3 3.Ca(OH) 2 4.FeCO 3 5.Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 6.I 2 O 5 7.Cu(ClO 4 ) 2 8.CS 2 9.B 2 Cl 4
Acid Nomenclature AcidsAcids Compounds that form H + in water.Compounds that form H + in water. Formulas usually begin with ‘H’.Formulas usually begin with ‘H’. In order to be an acid instead of a gas, binary acids must be aqueous (dissolved in water)In order to be an acid instead of a gas, binary acids must be aqueous (dissolved in water) Ternary acids are ALL aqueousTernary acids are ALL aqueous Examples:Examples: HCl (aq) – hydrochloric acidHCl (aq) – hydrochloric acid HNO 3 – nitric acidHNO 3 – nitric acid H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acidH 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid
Acid Nomenclature Review No Oxygen w/Oxygen An easy way to remember which goes with which… “In the cafeteria, you ATE something ICky”
Acid Nomenclature Flowchart
HBr (aq)HBr (aq) H 2 CO 3H 2 CO 3 H 2 SO 3H 2 SO 3 No oxygen, -ideNo oxygen, -ide Has oxygen, -ateHas oxygen, -ate Has oxygen, -iteHas oxygen, -ite hydrobromic acid carbonic acid sulfurous acid Acid Nomenclature
hydrofluoric acidhydrofluoric acid sulfuric acidsulfuric acid nitrous acidnitrous acid 2 elements2 elements 3 elements, -ic3 elements, -ic 3 elements, -ous3 elements, -ous HF (aq) H 2 SO 4 HNO 2 Acid Nomenclature H + F- H + SO 4 2- H + NO 2 -
Name ‘Em! HI (aq)HI (aq) HClHCl H 2 SO 3H 2 SO 3 HNO 3HNO 3 HIO 4HIO 4
Rainbow Matrix Game Link on Chemistry Geek.com on Chemistry I page http://chemistrygeek.com/rainbow Use [ ] to represent subscripts since you can’t enter subscripts into the computer So H 2 O would be HO And Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 would be Al(SO) Additional Polyatomic Ions (you do not have to memorize these, but they are in the game!) Borate = BO 3 -3 ; Silicate = SiO 4 -4 ; Manganate = MnO 4 -2 (permanganate is -1)