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CHEMICAL BONDING IONIC BONDS COVALENT BONDS HYDROGEN BONDS

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMICAL BONDING IONIC BONDS COVALENT BONDS HYDROGEN BONDS"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMICAL BONDING IONIC BONDS COVALENT BONDS HYDROGEN BONDS METALLIC BONDS

2 IONIC BONDING

3 IONIC BONDING When an atom of a nonmetal takes one or more electrons
from an atom of a metal so both atoms end up with eight valence electrons

4 IONIC BONDING IS THE COMPOUND AN IONIC COMPOUND? Mg N 3 2 NONMETAL
SUBSCRIPTS

5 IONIC BOND FORMATION Non-Metal Metal
Neutral atoms come near each other. Electron(s) are transferred from the Metal atom to the Non-metal atom. They stick together because of electrostatic forces, like magnets.

6 ION – any atom with more or less electrons that it is
IONIC BONDING ION – any atom with more or less electrons that it is supposed to have* *Remember that the number of electrons is supposed to be equal to the number of Protons if the atom has a neutral charge

7 Metals will tend to lose electrons and become
IONIC BONDING Metals will tend to lose electrons and become POSITIVE CATIONS = Na 11 p 10 e + - to become sodium ion + - 11 p 11 e Na Normal sodium atom - 1e loses one electron

8 Nonmetals will tend to gain electrons and become
IONIC BONDING Nonmetals will tend to gain electrons and become NEGATIVE ANIONS 17 p 17 e + - Cl Normal chlorine atom = Cl 17 p 18 e + - to become a chloride ion + 1e - gains an electron

9 Na+1 is called a sodium ion
IONIC BONDING Na+1 is called a sodium ion The +1 symbol means it has lost one electron

10 Mg+2 is called a magnesium ion
IONIC BONDING Mg+2 is called a magnesium ion The +2 symbol means it has lost two electron

11 S-2 is called a sulfide ion has gained two electron
IONIC BONDING S-2 is called a sulfide ion The -2 symbol means it has gained two electron

12 Cl-1 is called a chloride ion has gained one electron
IONIC BONDING Cl-1 is called a chloride ion The -1 symbol means it has gained one electron

13 NH4+1--ammonium ion CO3-2--carbonate ion PO4-3--phosphate ion
IONIC BONDING POLYATOMIC IONS--a group of atoms that act like one ion NH4+1--ammonium ion CO3-2--carbonate ion PO4-3--phosphate ion

14 POLYATOMIC IONS ACT JUST LIKE ANY OTHER NEGATIVE ION WHEN BONDING
IONIC BONDING POLYATOMIC IONS ACT JUST LIKE ANY OTHER NEGATIVE ION WHEN BONDING Na SO +1 -2 4

15 IONIC BONDING Na SO 2 4 SODIUM SULFATE

16 IONIC BONDING Al NO +3 3 -1 Al NO 3 1 ( ) 3

17 Properties of Ionic Compounds
Crystalline structure. A regular repeating arrangement of ions in the solid. Ions are strongly bonded. Structure is rigid. High melting points- because of strong forces between ions.

18 Crystalline structure
The POSITIVE CATIONS stick to the NEGATIVE ANIONS, like a magnet. + + - - - - + + - + - + + - - - + +

19 Do they Conduct? Conducting electricity is allowing charges to move.
In a solid, the ions are locked in place. Ionic solids are insulators. When melted, the ions can move around. Melted ionic compounds conduct. First get them to 800ºC. Dissolved in water they conduct.

20 Ionic solids are brittle
+ -

21 Ionic solids are brittle
Strong Repulsion breaks crystal apart. + - + - + - + -

22 COVALENT BONDING

23 When an atom of one nonmetal shares one or more electrons
COVALENT BONDING When an atom of one nonmetal shares one or more electrons with an atom of another nonmetal so both atoms end up with eight valence electrons

24 COVALENT BOND FORMATION
When one nonmetal shares one or more electrons with an atom of another nonmetal so both atoms end up with eight valence electrons

25 COVALENT BONDING IS THE COMPOUND A COVALENT COMPOUND? C O 2 NONMETAL
YES since it is made of only nonmetal elements

26 Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons F

27 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven F F

28 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F

29 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F

30 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F

31 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F

32 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons F F

33 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F

34 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F 8 Valence electrons

35 F F Covalent bonding Fluorine has seven valence electrons
A second atom also has seven By sharing electrons Both end with full orbitals F F 8 Valence electrons

36 Single Covalent Bond A sharing of two valence electrons.
Only nonmetals and Hydrogen. Different from an ionic bond because they actually form molecules. Two specific atoms are joined. In an ionic solid you can’t tell which atom the electrons moved from or to.

37 How to show how they formed
It’s like a jigsaw puzzle. I have to tell you what the final formula is. You put the pieces together to end up with the right formula. For example- show how water is formed with covalent bonds.

38 H O Water Each hydrogen has 1 valence electron
Each hydrogen wants 1 more The oxygen has 6 valence electrons The oxygen wants 2 more They share to make each other happy H O

39 H O Water Put the pieces together The first hydrogen is happy
The oxygen still wants one more H O

40 H O H Water The second hydrogen attaches
Every atom has full energy levels H O H

41 Multiple Bonds Sometimes atoms share more than one pair of valence electrons. A double bond is when atoms share two pair (4) of electrons. A triple bond is when atoms share three pair (6) of electrons.

42 C O Carbon dioxide CO2 - Carbon is central atom ( I have to tell you)
Carbon has 4 valence electrons Wants 4 more Oxygen has 6 valence electrons Wants 2 more C O

43 Carbon dioxide Attaching 1 oxygen leaves the oxygen 1 short and the carbon 3 short C O

44 Carbon dioxide Attaching the second oxygen leaves both oxygen 1 short and the carbon 2 short O C O

45 Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more O C O

46 Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more O C O

47 Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more O C O

48 Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more O C O

49 Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more O C O

50 Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more O C O

51 O C O Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond O C O

52 O C O Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond 8 valence electrons O C O

53 O C O Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond 8 valence electrons O C O

54 O C O Carbon dioxide The only solution is to share more
Requires two double bonds Each atom gets to count all the atoms in the bond 8 valence electrons O C O

55 How to draw them Add up all the valence electrons.
Count up the total number of electrons to make all atoms happy. Subtract. Divide by 2 Tells you how many bonds - draw them. Fill in the rest of the valence electrons to fill atoms up.

56 N H Examples NH3 N - has 5 valence electrons wants 8
H - has 1 valence electrons wants 2 NH3 has 5+3(1) = 8 NH3 wants 8+3(2) = 14 (14-8)/2= 3 bonds 4 atoms with 3 bonds H

57 H H N H Examples Draw in the bonds All 8 electrons are accounted for
Everything is full H H N H

58 Examples HCN C is central atom N - has 5 valence electrons wants 8
C - has 4 valence electrons wants 8 H - has 1 valence electrons wants 2 HCN has = 10 HCN wants = 18 (18-10)/2= 4 bonds 3 atoms with 4 bonds -will require multiple bonds - not to H

59 H C N HCN Put in single bonds Need 2 more bonds
Must go between C and N H C N

60 H C N HCN Put in single bonds Need 2 more bonds
Must go between C and N Uses 8 electrons - 2 more to add H C N

61 H C N HCN Put in single bonds Need 2 more bonds
Must go between C and N Uses 8 electrons - 2 more to add Must go on N to fill octet H C N

62 Another way of indicating bonds
Often use a line to indicate a bond Called a structural formula Each line is 2 valence electrons H O H H O H =

63 H C N H C O H Structural Examples
C has 8 electrons because each line is 2 electrons Ditto for N Ditto for C here Ditto for O H C N H C O H

64 Coordinate Covalent Bond
When one atom donates both electrons in a covalent bond. Carbon monoxide CO O C

65 Coordinate Covalent Bond
When one atom donates both electrons in a covalent bond. Carbon monoxide CO C O

66 Coordinate Covalent Bond
When one atom donates both electrons in a covalent bond. Carbon monoxide CO C O

67 Polar Bonds When the atoms in a bond are the same, the electrons are shared equally. This is a nonpolar covalent bond. When two different atoms are connected, the atoms may not be shared equally. This is a polar covalent bond. How do we measure how strong the atoms pull on electrons?

68 Electronegativity A measure of how strongly the atoms attract electrons in a bond. The bigger the electronegativity difference the more polar the bond. Covalent nonpolar Covalent polar >1.67 Ionic

69 How to show a bond is polar
Isn’t a whole charge just a partial charge d+ means a partially positive d- means a partially negative The Cl pulls harder on the electrons The electrons spend more time near the Cl d+ d- H Cl

70 Polar Molecules Molecules with ends

71 Polar Molecules Molecules with a positive and a negative end
Requires two things to be true The molecule must contain polar bonds This can be determined from differences in electronegativity. Symmetry can not cancel out the effects of the polar bonds. Must determine geometry first.

72 Is it polar? HF H2O NH3 CCl4 CO2

73 Intermolecular Forces
What holds molecules to each other

74 Intermolecular Forces
They are what make solid and liquid molecular compounds possible. The weakest are called van der Waal’s forces - there are two kinds Dispersion forces Dipole Interactions depend on the number of electrons more electrons stronger forces Bigger molecules

75 Dipole interactions Fluorine is a gas Bromine is a liquid
Depend on the number of electrons More electrons stronger forces Bigger molecules more electrons Fluorine is a gas Bromine is a liquid Iodine is a solid

76 Dipole interactions Occur when polar molecules are attracted to each other. Slightly stronger than dispersion forces. Opposites attract but not completely hooked like in ionic solids.

77 Dipole interactions H F d+ d- H F d+ d-
Occur when polar molecules are attracted to each other. Slightly stronger than dispersion forces. Opposites attract but not completely hooked like in ionic solids. H F d+ d- H F d+ d-

78 Dipole Interactions d+ d- d+ d- d+ d- d+ d- d+ d- d+ d- d+ d- d+ d-

79 Hydrogen bonding Are the attractive force caused by hydrogen bonded to F, O, or N. F, O, and N are very electronegative so it is a very strong dipole. The hydrogen partially share with the lone pair in the molecule next to it. The strongest of the intermolecular forces.

80 Hydrogen Bonding H O d+ d- H O d+ d-

81 Hydrogen bonding H O H O H O H O H O H O H O

82 MOLECULAR SHAPES OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS

83 VSepR tHEORY ALENCE HELL VSEPR LECTRON AIR EPULSION

84 This leads to molecules having specific shapes.
What Vsepr means Since electrons do not like each other, because of their negative charges, they orient themselves as far apart as possible, from each other. This leads to molecules having specific shapes.

85 Things to remember Atoms bond to form an Octet (8 outer electrons/full outer energy level) Bonded electrons take up less space then un-bonded/unshared pairs of electrons.

86 HERE ARE THE RESULTING MOLECULAR SHAPES

87 Linear BeF2 Number of Bonds = 2
EXAMPLE: BeF2 Number of Bonds = 2 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2 Bond Angle = 180°

88 Trigonal Planar GaF3 Number of Bonds = 3
EXAMPLE: GaF3 Number of Bonds = 3 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 3 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0 Bond Angle = 120°

89 Bent #1 H2O Number of Bonds = 2
EXAMPLE: H2O Number of Bonds = 2 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 2 Bond Angle = < 120°

90 Bent #2 O3 Number of Bonds = 2 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2
EXAMPLE: O3 Number of Bonds = 2 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 2 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1 Bond Angle = >120°

91 Tetrahedral CH4 Number of Bonds = 4
EXAMPLE: CH4 Number of Bonds = 4 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 4 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0 Bond Angle = 109.5°

92 Trigonal Pyramidal NH3 Number of Bonds = 3
EXAMPLE: NH3 Number of Bonds = 3 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 4 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1 Bond Angle = <109.5°

93 NbF5 Trigonal bIPyramidal Number of Bonds = 5
EXAMPLE: NbF5 Number of Bonds = 5 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 5 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 0 Bond Angle = <120°

94 OCTAHEDRAL SF6 Number of Bonds = 6
EXAMPLE: SF6 Number of Bonds = 6 Number of Shared Pairs of Electrons = 6 Number of Unshared Pairs of Electrons = 1 Bond Angle = 90°

95 Metallic Bonds How atoms are held together in the solid.
Metals hold onto there valence electrons very weakly. Think of them as positive ions floating in a sea of electrons.

96 Sea of Electrons + Electrons are free to move through the solid.
Metals conduct electricity. +

97 Hammered into shape (bend). Ductile - drawn into wires.
Metals are Malleable Hammered into shape (bend). Ductile - drawn into wires.

98 Malleable +

99 Malleable Electrons allow atoms to slide by. + + + + + + + + + + + +

100 THE END


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