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Published byJoan Curtis
Modified about 1 year ago
05/14/2014 Flexibility Methods Workgroup
2 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Overview/Agenda Discussion of Literature Review: 45 mins Data Needs and potential datasets: 30 mins Method discussion: –Flexibility Requirements – 30 mins –Flexibility Provision – 45 mins –Hydro Modeling Assumptions – 30 mins
3 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Assessing Flexibility Increased ramping expected: –Wind and Solar –Potential for uncontrolled DER Need to be able to ensure sufficient capability in the system to provide operational flexibility Methods need to do some or all of following: –Measure requirements for flexibility –Assess whether system can meet requirements –Complement existing or altered IRP process Flexibility Requirements Availability of Resources
4 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Flexibility Requirements - methods 1. Historical or simulated data and a risk preference –Cover a certain percentage of historical or simulated data based on risk preference E.g. Cover all historical wind data based on 95 th percentile, chosen to represent CPS2 score –Sometimes based on expected conditions, e.g. need is higher in mid- point of wind output –Can be captured for different datasets relatively easily and well verified with numerous studies –Notable examples: NREL, PNNL, Doherty, NERC IVGTF 2. Run full unit commitment and economic dispatch study –Alter constraints to reflect need for flexibility –Use metrics which track violations –Examples: Bouffard, E3 REFLEX, Da Silva –More detailed simulation needed, but may better reflect reality if system operations known
5 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Flexibility Requirements (ctd) Methods will examine different time scales –<5 mins, 5 mins, 10 mins, 1 hour, 3 hours May capture locational aspects if required Can be based on dynamic procurement or static number Never try to capture 100% of all potential outcomes –NERC scores don’t require this
6 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Assessing flexibility adequacy Multiple levels can be used Screening Maximum Available Ramping Economic Dispatch Generator state estimates Generation characteristics Full Study w/ Flex constraints Level of detail May want to combine some of these
7 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Screening Methods Highest level: Assess ramping capability of system without regard to availability of resources –Example: IEA FAST1 – assess ramping capability against a number of snapshot points in time –Overly simplistic and misses generation limitations More detail: PGE IRP –Quantify required flexibility up to one hour –Examine available by turning on all capacity and moving to max capacity as soon as possible –Compare with required capacity Kirschen/Ma –Dependent on start time, ramp rate and operating range –Flexibility index presented for units and system –A means to measure and compare flexibility across resources
8 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Intermediate assessment Schillmoeller/NWPCC: Requirement for and provision of imbalance reserves –Calculates cumulative ramp duration curve –Orders resource over different time scales –Ability of capacity to recover over the course of a net deployment is then described path –Requirement minimum resource required meeting all of the paths IEA FAST v2: Basic dispatch stack –Examines optimistic and pessimistic assumptions Optimistic: Commit excessive capacity Pessimistic: Do not account for various constraints –Examine 1 year and compare requirements and available resources –Calculate number of periods when flexibility is short –Extensive data required, but not computation EPRI (2013) –Levels 1 and 2 of InFLEXion flexibility assessment tool –Level 1: Variability based on historical analysis (similar to other methods) –Level 2: Ramping capability, standing start of fleet, etc – similar to other methods above –Min gen available per hour of year (curtailment) –Up ramping similar to PGE methods
9 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Detailed Assessment Insufficient Ramp Resource Expectation (Lannoye) –Similar to LOLE, but for ramps –Probabilistic method to calculate frequency of deficits –Dependent on production cost modeling –Applied to up and down in multiple time intervals EPRI methods - extension of IRRE –Probability of flexibility deficit and expected unserved ramping: Deterministic metrics looking over 1+ year at various percentiles –Well being analysis combining these metrics E3 REFLEX tool: Detailed Monte Carlo simulation under a range of operating conditions –Availability of resources determined using conventional production simulation tools –Large number of 3-day scenarios simulated, energy and reserve violations tracked –Shapes determined to be used with tools based on flexibility required with penalties for not meeting energy or reserve
10 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Detailed Assessment (ctd) Menemenlis: Effect which operational processes have on the deliverability of the flexibility available from generators –Not the technical capability of a system’s resources –More suited to operations than planning Studarus: Operational flexibility of hydro fleet –Time series of flexibility available –Compares deterministic representation of flex available based on confidence intervals with deterministic representation of requirements –Can be used to visualize time periods into the future –Detailed operational flexibility assessment SERVM/EPRI study: Resource adequacy/production cost tool –Adopted to assess ability to meet uncertainty –Large number of draws of system operations –Can quantify impacts of variability and uncertainty on LOLE
11 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Conclusions Range of methods is quite large –Categorized here based on detail Need to base method used on goal of study –Detailed operational or resource planning? –New resources, or check for reliability of system? Levels used should also be based on data and resources available to do study
12 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Data Requirements All methods will require time series –Wind, load, solar, other non-dispatchable generation –High time resolution (1 min desired) –Spatial resolution depends on system studied –For scenarios, need to capture geographical spread etc. Data on resource also important for most methods: –Max and min stable output –Ramp rate, start time, min up and down times –Outage rates –Must run/availability constrained periods –Useful to have historical data as guide Hydro is important – later discussion
13 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Case study system Want to demonstrate chosen methods against useful system –Represents challenges of NW, e.g. hydro, wind and multiple regions –Needs to be simple enough to put together with existing data Four main options –BPA as is –BPA, with addition of additional thermal to represent other areas –Either of first two, split into 2 regions –IEEE test system
14 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Hydro Treatment Very important here Need to come up with a method which captures limitations on hydro fleet but also flexibility available Considers day ahead vs. real time available flexibility –Requires existing hourly dispatch from other tools Potentially: hold some MWh out and allow to go to machine limit for very short amount of time –Balance an “account” hourly, daily or weekly –Some amount held for energy, some for reserves 80 years should be used
15 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Discussion What types of requirements should be covered? What percentile of requirements covered? How should hydro be modeled? How should flexibility available to meet requirements be calculated? How should we measure deficiencies? What should the target be? What system should we use to demonstrate methods? How do we ensure the methods are suitable? Sensitivities? What data needs to be included?
16 © 2014 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Summary Methods vary from simple screening to detailed UC/ED study –Need to examine 1 or 2 which capture important aspects of NW Demand for flexibility methods: –Historical analysis – use NREL or PNNL methods Supply of flexibility –Larger uncertainty – ensure we can adopt method to pessimistic or optimistic assumptions
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