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Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Hepatitis C in CKD.

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Presentation on theme: "Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Hepatitis C in CKD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis, Prevention and Management of Hepatitis C in CKD

2 An independently incorporated nonprofit foundation, governed by an international board with the stated mission to ‘improve the care and outcomes of kidney disease patients worldwide through promoting coordination, collaboration, and integration of initiatives to develop and implement clinical practice guidelines.’ Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes

3 Why Global Guidelines on Hepatitis C in CKD? The Hepatitis C virus infects over 170, 000, 000 subjects worldwide Hepatitis C much more prevalent in CKD patients than in the general population HCV is both a consequence and cause of CKD Transmission rates of HCV in dialysis units still high in many countries

4 Workgroup Composition Workgroup chosen based on: –Expertise and clinical experience in the field –Well balanced regarding - Geography - Areas of expertise -CKD, Dialysis, Kidney TP -Virology -Hepatology -Pathology -Nursing

5 Workgroup Members Co-chairs: David Roth (USA) and Michel Jadoul (Belgium) Charles Alpers (USA) Jose Morales (Spain) Roy Bloom (USA) Svetlozar Natov (USA) Fabrizio Fabrizi (Italy) Stanislas Pol (France) Jacques Izopet (France) K. Rajender Reddy (USA) Elizabeth Lindley (UK) Lionel Rostaing (France) Paul Martin (USA) Lai Wei (China)

6 Workgroup Liaison Members CDC: Miriam Alter NIH: Catherine Meyers Leonard Seeff WHO: Daniel Lavanchy

7 Evidence Review Team Ethan Balk, Tufts-NEMC Boston Craig Gordon, Tufts-NEMC Boston Joseph Lau, Tufts-NEMC Boston Katrin Uhlig, Tufts-NEMC Boston Jonathan Craig, Australia John Ioannidis, Greece

8 First Global Guideline in Nephrology Published in April Supplement of Kidney International Available on the KDIGO website (www.kdigo.org) –Complete guideline document in English –Executive Summary with recommendations in Arabic, Chinese, French, Italian, Japanese, Russian, Spanish, and Turkish

9 Sequential Process for Guideline Development First Steps: –1: Develop questions and define outcomes Preparatory Steps: –2: Conduct systematic review –3: Prepare evidence profile for important outcomes Grading: –4: Grade quality of evidence for each outcome –5: Rank relative importance of each outcome –6: Grade overall quality of evidence across all outcomes –7: Assess balance of benefits and harms –8: Assess balance of net benefit and costs –9: Formulate recommendation and grade strength Subsequent Steps: –10: Implement and evaluate

10 Extensive Guideline Review Process KDIGO Executive Committee and Board Representatives of Five International Guideline Development Groups Organizational, Stakeholder, and Public Review All comments submitted at each phase of the review process are carefully reviewed and considered by the Work Group prior to publication of the final guidelines.

11 Guideline Chapter Topics 1.Detection and evaluation of HCV in CKD 2.Treating HCV infection in CKD 3.Preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis units 4.Management of HCV before and after kidney transplantation 5. Diagnosis and management of kidney diseases associated with HCV infection

12 Here slide from ERT on n of papers

13 Levels of Strength of Recommendations Strength of Recommendation Wording of Recommendation Basis for Strength of Recommendation StrongAn intervention “should” be done “High” quality evidence and/or other considerations support a strong guideline* ModerateAn intervention “should be considered” “Moderate” quality evidence and/or other considerations support a moderate guideline* WeakAn intervention “is suggested” “Low” or “Very Low” quality evidence; predominantly based on expert judgment for good clinical practice*

14 Chapter 1: Detection and evaluation of HCV 1.1 Determining which CKD patients should be tested for HCV: It is suggested that CKD patients be tested for HCV. (Weak) Testing for HCV should be performed in patients on maintenance HD (CKD Stage 5D) and kidney transplant candidates. (Strong)

15 Chapter 1: Detection and evaluation of HCV 1.2 HCV testing for patients on maintenance HD: Patients on HD should be tested when they first start HD or when they transfer from another HD facility. (Strong) –In HD units with a low prevalence of HCV, initial testing with EIA (if positive, followed by NAT) should be considered. (Moderate) –In HD units with a high prevalence of HCV, initial testing with NAT should be considered (Moderate)

16 Chapter 1: Detection and evaluation of HCV 1.2 HCV testing for patients on maintenance HD: For patients on HD who test negative for HCV, retesting every 6–12 months with EIA should be considered. (Moderate) Testing for HCV with NAT should be performed for HD patients with unexplained abnormal aminotransferase(s) levels. (Strong)

17 Chapter 1: Detection and evaluation of HCV 1.2 HCV testing for patients on maintenance HD: If a new HCV infection in a HD unit is suspected to be nosocomial, testing with NAT should be performed in all patients who may have been exposed. (Strong) –Repeat testing with NAT is suggested within 2–12 weeks in initially NAT-negative patients. (Weak)

18 Diagnosis of HCV in CKD Stage 5 on HD

19

20 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.1 Evaluation of HCV-infected CKD patients for antiviral treatment: It is suggested that CKD patients with HCV infection be evaluated for antiviral treatment. (Weak) It is suggested that the decision to treat be based on the potential benefits and risks of therapy, including life expectancy, candidacy for kidney transplantation, and comorbidities. (Weak)

21 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.1 Evaluation for antiviral treatment: It is suggested that in CKD patients—except kidney transplant recipients—who develop an acute HCV infection, a waiting period beyond 12 weeks to observe spontaneous clearance (by NAT) is not justified, and that antiviral treatment should be started. (Weak) It is suggested that HCV-infected patients accepted for kidney transplant be treated. (Weak)

22 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.1 Evaluation for antiviral treatment: It is suggested that treatment of HCV- infected kidney transplant recipients be considered only when the benefits of treatment clearly outweigh the risk of allograft rejection due to IFN-based therapy (for example, fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, life-threatening vasculitis). (Weak) It is suggested that antiviral therapy be considered for patients with HCV-related GN. (Weak)

23 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.2 Basing treatment on CKD stage: For HCV-infected patients with CKD Stages 1 and 2, combined antiviral treatment using pegylated IFN and ribavirin is suggested, as in the general population. (Weak) –It is suggested that ribavirin dose be titrated according to patient tolerance. (Weak)

24 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.2 Basing treatment on CKD stage: For HCV-infected patients with CKD Stages 3, 4, and 5 not yet on dialysis, monotherapy with pegylated IFN with doses adjusted to the level of kidney function is suggested. (Weak)

25 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.2 Basing treatment on CKD stage: For HCV-infected patients with CKD Stage 5D on maintenance hemodialysis, monotherapy with standard IFN that is dose-adjusted for a GFR <15 ml per min per 1.73m2 is suggested. (Weak) For HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients in whom the benefits of antiviral treatment clearly outweigh the risks, monotherapy with standard IFN is suggested. (Weak)

26 Interferon has been associated with allograft rejection and failure Not recommendedNot recommended unless treating fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis T 1-5 Interferon: same as aboveNot recommendedAlpha 2a IFN: 3 mU SQ 3x/week Alpha 2b IFN: 3mU SQ 3x/week 5D Interferon: same as aboveNot recommended - Peg IFN alpha 2a: 135 ug SQ q week - Peg IFN alpha 2b: 1 ug/kg SQ q week 5 - Interferon: same as above - Ribavirin can cause hemolytic anemia; requires increased EPO - Stage 3: mg/day in two divided doses - Not recommended for eGFR < 50 ml/min; - Peg IFN alpha 2a: 135 ug SQ q week - Peg IFN alpha 2b: 1 ug/kg SQ q week 3 and 4 - Interferon: headache, flu- like illness, depression - Ribavirin: worsened anemia due to hemolysis mg/day in two divided doses - Peg IFN alpha 2a: 180 ug SQ q week -Peg IFN alpha 2b: 1.5 ug/kg SQ q week 1 and 2 Common adverse events RibavirinInterferon Stage of CKD Treatment of HCV infection in CKD Patients

27 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.3 Monitoring the response to HCV treatment: SVR, defined as HCV RNA clearance 6 months after completion of antiviral treatment, is suggested for assessing response to antiviral treatment. (Weak) If SVR is achieved, it is suggested that testing with NAT be performed annually to ensure that the patient remains nonviremic. (Weak) –For patients on maintenance HD, repeat testing with NAT every 6 months is suggested. (Weak)

28 Chapter 2: Treatment of HCV Infection 2.3 Monitoring the response to HCV treatment: All patients with HCV infection, regardless of treatment or treatment response, should be followed for HCV-associated comorbidities. (Strong) –Patients who have evidence of clinical or histologic cirrhosis should have follow-up every 6 months. (Strong) –Annual follow-up for patients without cirrhosis is suggested. (Weak)

29 Chapter 3: Preventing HCV Transmission 3.1: HD units should ensure implementation of, and adherence to, strict infection-control procedures designed to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens, including HCV. (Strong) –Isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended as an alternative to strict infection-control procedures for preventing transmission of blood-borne pathogens. (Weak)

30 Chapter 3: Preventing HCV Transmission 3.1: (Continued) –The use of dedicated dialysis machines for HCV infected patients is not recommended. (Moderate) –Where dialyzer reuse is unavoidable, it is suggested that the dialyzers of HCV-infected patients can be reused provided there is implementation of, and adherence to, strict infection-control procedures. (Weak)

31 Chapter 3: Preventing HCV Transmission 3.2 Infection-control procedures should include hygienic precautions (see Tables) that effectively prevent the transfer of blood—or fluids contaminated with blood—between patients, either directly or via contaminated equipment or surfaces. (Strong) –It is suggested to integrate regular observational audits of infection-control procedures in performance reviews of HD units. (Weak)

32 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.1 Evaluation and management of kidney transplant candidates: All kidney transplant candidates should be evaluated for HCV infection (Strong) –In low-prevalence settings, initial testing with EIA and follow-up of positive EIA with NAT should be considered. (Moderate) –In high-prevalence settings, initial testing with NAT should be considered. (Moderate)

33 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.1 (Continued) HCV infection should not be considered a contraindication for kidney transplantation. (Moderate) It is suggested that HCV-infected kidney transplant candidates undergo a liver biopsy before transplantation. (Weak)

34 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.1 (Continued) It is suggested that HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis confirmed by liver biopsy, but clinically compensated liver disease, be considered for kidney transplantation only in an investigational setting. (Weak) It is suggested that HCV-infected kidney transplant candidates be considered for treatment with standard IFN before transplantation. (Weak)

35 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.1 (Continued) It is suggested that patients on a kidney transplant waiting list be evaluated for HCV infection. (Weak) –For patients who have never been tested for HCV, it is suggested that testing be performed with EIA in low-prevalence settings (with follow-up of positive results by NAT) and NAT in high-prevalence settings. (Weak) –It is suggested that HCV-infected patients not previously known to be viremic be placed on hold status pending full evaluation of the severity of their liver disease. (Weak)

36 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.1 (Continued) – (Continued) –It is suggested that patients who had received antiviral treatment before listing and had SVR have testing with NAT repeated at least annually (Weak); if NAT becomes positive, it is suggested that the patient be put on hold status and have full evaluation of their liver disease. (Weak) –It is suggested that HCV-infected patients who had prior evaluation with liver biopsy, but either failed or refused antiviral treatment, have repeat liver biopsy every 3–5 years while on the transplant waiting list, depending on their histologic stage. (Weak)

37 Pretransplant evaluation for HCV infection

38 Management of the wait-listed pretransplant candidate

39 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.2 Use of kidneys from HCV-infected donors: All kidney donors should be tested for HCV infection. (Strong) –Testing with both EIA and NAT (if NAT is available) is suggested. (Weak) It is suggested that transplantation of kidneys from donors infected with HCV be restricted to recipients with positive NAT. (Weak)

40 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant 4.3: Use of maintenance immunosuppressive regimens: All conventional current maintenance immunosuppressive regimens can be considered for use in HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients. (Weak))

41 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant Management of HCV-related complications in kidney transplant recipients: It is suggested that HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients more than 6 months after transplant have their liver disease evaluated at least annually. (Weak) For HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients in whom the benefits of antiviral treatment clearly outweigh the risks, monotherapy with standard IFN is suggested. (Weak)

42 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant Management of HCV-related complications in kidney transplant recipients: It is suggested that HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients be screened for the development of hyperglycemia after transplantation. (Weak) It is suggested that HCV-infected kidney transplant recipients be tested at least every 3–6 months for proteinuria. (Weak) –It is suggested that patients who develop new onset proteinuria (either urine protein/creatinine ratio>1 or 24-h urine protein greater than 1 g on two or more occasions) have an allograft biopsy with immunofluorescence and electron microscopy included in the analysis. (Weak)

43 Chapter 4: Management of HCV-Infected Patients Pre & Post Transplant Management of HCV-related complications in kidney transplant recipients: Because of the risk of rejection, it is suggested that kidney transplant recipients with HCV-associated glomerulopathy not receive IFN- based therapy, unless it is determined that the benefits of therapy outweigh the risks of treatment. (Weak)

44 Chapter 5: Diagnosis &Management of Kidney Diseases Associated with HVC It is suggested that HCV-infected patients be tested at least annually for proteinuria, hematuria, and estimated GFR to detect possible HCV-associated kidney disease. (Weak) It is suggested that a kidney biopsy be performed in HCV-infected patients with clinical evidence of GN. (Weak) It is suggested that for patients with HCV- associated glomerular diseases, particularly MPGN, antiviral treatment as per Guideline 2.2 be considered. (Weak) –It is suggested that immunosuppressive agents be considered for patients with cryoglobulinemic kidney diseases. (Weak)

45 Summary First Published KDIGO Guideline First Global Guideline in Nephrology First Comprehensive Guideline on HCV in CKD Guidelines can be found at:


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