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Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20151 Short Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20151 Short Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20151 Short Introduction Home Continue Lysine amino acid Dietary Sources Plant contain Lysine Clinical Significance Biosynthesis Continue Sources and Properties Downloaded from

2 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20152 بسم الله الر حمن الر حيم Sayed Jalil Downloaded from

3 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20153 Lysine amino acid Last Updated: May 10, 2015 Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K)[1] is an α- amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG. Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K)[1] is an α- amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. This amino acid is an essential amino acid, which means that humans cannot synthesize it. Its codons are AAA and AAG.[1] amino acidchemical formulaessential amino acidcodons[1] amino acidchemical formulaessential amino acidcodons Downloaded from

4 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20154 Continue Lysine is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. Common posttranslational modifications include methylation of the ε-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. The latter occurs in calmodulin. Other posttranslational modifications include acetylation. Collagen contains hydroxylysine which is derived from lysine by lysyl hydroxylase. O-Glycosylation of lysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell. Lysine is a base, as are arginine and histidine. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. Common posttranslational modifications include methylation of the ε-amino group, giving methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyllysine. The latter occurs in calmodulin. Other posttranslational modifications include acetylation. Collagen contains hydroxylysine which is derived from lysine by lysyl hydroxylase. O-Glycosylation of lysine residues in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus is used to mark certain proteins for secretion from the cell.baseargininehistidinecatalysisposttranslational modifications calmodulinposttranslational modificationsacetylationCollagen hydroxylysine lysyl hydroxylaseGlycosylationendoplasmic reticulumGolgi apparatus secretioncellbaseargininehistidinecatalysisposttranslational modifications calmodulinposttranslational modificationsacetylationCollagen hydroxylysine lysyl hydroxylaseGlycosylationendoplasmic reticulumGolgi apparatus secretioncell Downloaded from

5 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20155 Biosynthesis As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. In plants and microorganisms, it is synthesized from aspartic acid, which is first converted to β- aspartyl-semialdehyde. Cyclization gives dihydropicolinate, which is reduced to Δ1- piperidine-2,6-dicarboxylate. Ring-opening of this heterocycle gives a series of derivatives of pimelic acid, ultimately affording lysine. Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include:[2] As an essential amino acid, lysine is not synthesized in animals, hence it must be ingested as lysine or lysine-containing proteins. In plants and microorganisms, it is synthesized from aspartic acid, which is first converted to β- aspartyl-semialdehyde. Cyclization gives dihydropicolinate, which is reduced to Δ1- piperidine-2,6-dicarboxylate. Ring-opening of this heterocycle gives a series of derivatives of pimelic acid, ultimately affording lysine. Enzymes involved in this biosynthesis include:[2] aspartic acid pimelic acid[2] aspartic acid pimelic acid[2] Downloaded from

6 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20156 Continue Aspartokinase β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase dehydrogenase Dihydropicolinate synthase synthase Δ1-piperidine-2,6-dicarboxylate dehydrogenase N-succinyl-2-amino-6ketopimelate synthase Succinyl diaminopimelate aminotransferase aminotransferase Succinyl diaminopimelate desuccinylase Diaminopimelate epimerase epimerase Diaminopimelate decarboxylase decarboxylase Downloaded from

7 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20157 Dietary sources The human nutritional requirement is 1–1.5 g daily. It is the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity in the particular foodstuff) in all cereal grains, but is plentiful in all pulses (legumes). Plants that contain significant amounts of lysine include:[citation needed] The human nutritional requirement is 1–1.5 g daily. It is the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the smallest quantity in the particular foodstuff) in all cereal grains, but is plentiful in all pulses (legumes). Plants that contain significant amounts of lysine include:[citation needed]nutritional requirementlimiting amino acidcereal grainspulsescitation needednutritional requirementlimiting amino acidcereal grainspulsescitation needed Downloaded from

8 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20158 Plants contain lysine Buffalo GourdBuffalo Gourd (10,130–33,000 ppm) in seed Buffalo Gourd BerroBerro, Watercress (1,340–26,800 ppm) in herb. Watercress BerroWatercress SoybeanSoybean (24,290–26,560 ppm) in seed. Soybean CarobCarob, Locust Bean, St.John's-Bread (26,320 ppm) in seed; Locust BeanSt.John's-Bread CarobLocust BeanSt.John's-Bread Common BeanCommon Bean (Black Bean, Dwarf Bean, Field Bean, Flageolet Bean, French Bean, Garden Bean, Green Bean, Haricot, Haricot Bean, Haricot Vert, Kidney Bean, Navy Bean, Pop Bean, Popping Bean, Snap Bean, String Bean, Wax Bean) (2,390–25,700 ppm) in sprout seedling; Common Bean Downloaded from

9 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/20159 continue Ben NutBen Nut, Benzolive Tree, Jacinto (Sp.), Moringa (aka Drumstick Tree, Horseradish Tree, Ben Oil Tree), West Indian Ben (5,370–25,165 ppm) in shoot. Benzolive TreeJacintoMoringa Drumstick TreeHorseradish TreeBen Oil TreeWest Indian Ben NutBenzolive TreeJacintoMoringa Drumstick TreeHorseradish TreeBen Oil TreeWest Indian Ben LentilLentil (7,120–23,735 ppm) in sprout seedling. Lentil Asparagus PeaAsparagus Pea, Winged Bean (aka Goa Bean) (21,360–23,304 ppm) in seed. Winged BeanGoa Bean Asparagus PeaWinged BeanGoa Bean Fat HenFat Hen (3,540–22,550 ppm) in seed. Fat Hen LentilLentil (19,570–22,035 ppm) in seed. Lentil White LupinWhite Lupin (19,330–21,585 ppm) in seed. White Lupin Black CarawayBlack Caraway, Black Cumin, Fennel-Flower, Nutmeg-Flower, Roman Coriander (16,200–20,700 ppm) in seed. Black CuminFennel-Flower Nutmeg-FlowerRoman Coriander Black CarawayBlack CuminFennel-Flower Nutmeg-FlowerRoman Coriander SpinachSpinach (1,740–20,664 ppm). Spinach AmaranthAmaranth, Quinoa Quinoa AmaranthQuinoa Downloaded from

10 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/ Sources and Properties Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein including meat (specifically red meat, pork, and poultry), cheese (particularly parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and sardines), and eggs L-Lysine is a necessary building block for all protein in the body. L-Lysine plays a major role in calcium absorption; building muscle protein; recovering from surgery or sports injuries; and the body's production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies L-Lysine is a necessary building block for all protein in the body. L-Lysine plays a major role in calcium absorption; building muscle protein; recovering from surgery or sports injuries; and the body's production of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies protein calciumabsorptionmusclesurgeryhormonesenzymes antibodies protein calciumabsorptionmusclesurgeryhormonesenzymes antibodies Downloaded from

11 Insert workgroup logo on slide master Insert workgroup name on slide master Projects Documents Team Links What’s New Home 5/10/ Clinical significance It has been suggested that lysine may be beneficial for those with herpes simplex infections.[5] However, more research is needed to fully substantiate this claim. For more information, refer to Herpes simplex - Lysine. [5]Herpes simplex - Lysine[5]Herpes simplex - Lysine There are Lysine conjugates that show promise in the treatment of cancer, by causing cancerous cells to destroy themselves when the drug is combined with the use of phototherapy, while leaving non-cancerous cells unharmed cancerphototherapycancerphototherapy Downloaded from


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