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Presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions I N D I U M Group13 Siti Rohmatikah ( ) Rasminda Senovita ( ) Nurrahmi H ( ) Dani Setiawan ( )

2 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Overview of Indium Origin of name: –from the brilliant indigo line in its spectrum History: –discovered by Ferdinand Reich and Theodor H Richter in 1863 while they were testing zinc ores with a spectrograph in search of thallium. –Richter went on to isolate the metal in –until 1924, a gram or so constituted the world's supply of this element in isolated form Sources: –by-product of zinc refining –also found in iron, lead, and copper ores

3 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Atomic Structure of Indium Number of Energy Levels: 5 First Energy Level: 2 Second Energy Level: 8 Third Energy Level: 18 Fourth Energy Level: 18 Fifth Energy Level: 3

4 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Crystal Structure of Indium Tetragonal

5 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Physical Properties Atomic Mass Average: Melting Point: °C Boiling Point: 2073°C Conductivity: –Electrical: /cm –Thermal: W/cmK Density: 300K Description: –soft, silvery-white metal with a brilliant luster Enthalpy of Atomization: °C Enthalpy of Fusion: 3.28 kJ/mole Enthalpy of Vaporization: kJ/mole

6 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Chemical Properties Electron Work Function: 4.12eV Electronegativity :1.78 (Pauling) Heat of Fusion: 3.263kJ/mol Ionization Potential: –First: –Second: –Third: Valence Electron Potential: -54 eV

7 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions with air: 4 In (g) + 3O 2(g) → 2 In 2 O 3(s) with water: In 3+ (aq) + H 2 O (l) → In(OH) 2 + (aq) + H + (aq) with acids: 2 In 2 O 3(s) + 12 HCl (aq) → 4 InCl 3(aq) + 6 H 2 O (l) with bases: InCl 3(aq) + 4 LiH (s) → LiInH 4(aq) + 3 LiCl (aq) with halogens: 3 In (s) + CaF 2(aq) → 3 InF 2(aq) + Ca 2+ (aq)

8 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Isotopes & Abundance about as abundant as silver 4 million troy ounces of indium are now produced annually in the world Isotopes’ Half Life –In-111: 2.8 days –In-113: Stable (4,3%) –In-114: 1.2 minutes –In-115: 4.4 x years (95,7%) –In-116: 14.1 seconds –In-117: 44.0 minutes

9 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Use of Indium low-melting alloys (an alloy of 24% indium - 76% gallium is liquid at room temperature) Used to make photoconductors, germanium transistors, rectifiers, and thermistors. electroluminescent panels light filter in low pressure sodium vapor lamps Indium phosphide semiconductors and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) eutectic alloy of gallium, indium, and tin (Galinstan ® ), is widely available in fever thermometers Can also be plated onto metals and evaporated onto glass which forms a mirror which is as good as those made with silver but has higher corrosion resistance. fusible alloys, solders, dental alloys, nuclear control rods, and electronics

10 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Health Effects Pure indium in metal form is considered non- toxic by most sources. All indium compounds should be regarded as highly toxic. Indium compounds damage the heart, kidney, and liver, and may be teratogenic. Example: –indium trichloride anhydrous (InCl3) is quite toxic –indium phosphide (InP) is both toxic and a suspected carcinogen.

11 presented by Group 13 Atomic Structure Crystal Structure Physical Properties Chemical Properties Overview Indium Isotopes & Abundance Use of Indium Health Effects Environmental Effects Chemical Reactions Environmental Effects Indium has no hazardous effect to the environment although indium is very slightly radioactive. It very slowly decays to tin over time. This radioactivity is not considered hazardous, mainly because its decay rate is nearly 50,000 times slower than that of natural thorium, with a half-life, 4 x years, many thousands of times longer than the estimated age of the universe. Also, indium is not a notorious cumulative poison, like its neighbor cadmium, and is relatively rare.


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