Presentation on theme: "Colonies Grow Figuring it out The New World As early settlements started to succeed, new types of settlers set out for the New World. Pilgrims were a."— Presentation transcript:
Colonies Grow Figuring it out
The New World As early settlements started to succeed, new types of settlers set out for the New World. Pilgrims were a separatist group from England who rejected the Church of England because it was too similar to the Catholic Church that it broke from. – When the government started attacking the Pilgrims for their beliefs, they fled to Holland, then to the New World. – Pilgrims set out November 1620 on the Mayflower and landed in Massachusetts
Pilgrim Government The Pilgrims landed outside of the limits of the charter they received, so they decided they must keep order for themselves. The Pilgrims signed an agreement, the Mayflower Compact, where the Pilgrims agreed to obey laws they made and agreed on for the good of the colony – It was the first form of self- government and majority rule in the colonies.
Puritans The Puritans were a religious group who believed much differently than the Pilgrims. Rather than disagreeing with the Church of England, they wanted to purify their practices. Puritans were also treated poorly in England, so they left for America as well. Puritans started what they called the “New England Way.” This outlined Puritan beliefs and society – and stressed things like duty, godliness, hard work and honesty. You had to attend church and all community meetings in the local meeting house. Only church members could vote. They believed games and amusements led to laziness, but everyone needed to learn to read so they could read the Bible.
Great Migration By 1630, Puritans were really being persecuted in England, so between 1630 and 1640 a Great Migration of Puritans began. Puritans fled to create new colonies around the world. 20,000 came to New England under a charter by the Massachusetts Bay Company, to begin the Massachusetts Bay Colony. – The Puritans were very well prepared and supplied, led by Governor John Winthrop who believed that all needed to work for the good of the whole.
Expanding Government The Puritans started spreading out in the colonies. Thomas Hooker moved his followers to the Connecticut Valley. There they set up a government that limited the power of the Governor, and expanded the idea of representative government by allowing non-church members to vote as well. This government, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, was the first Constitutional type of Government in the colonies.
Breaking Away Not all colonial citizens agreed with the New England Way. Roger Williams, a Baptist minister in Massachusetts, was kicked out of the colony for his beliefs that you shouldn’t be required to attend church services, and that you shouldn’t be allowed to take Indian lands. He left Massachusetts and founded Rhode Island, where he guaranteed religious freedom and separation of church and state.
Breaking Away Ann Hutchinson was another Puritan forced out of Massachusetts when she challenged church authority. She believed that people didn’t need churches, ministers or Bibles to worship God, and she held religious meetings in her home.
THE THIRTEEN COLONIES England plants colonies in North America
COLONY # 1 VIRGINIA
FIRST LASTING SETTLEMENT Jamestown FOUNDED 1607 LEADER John Smith
Virginia Company Joint Stock Company that funded the settlement of Jamestown Charter from King James I Jamestown, James River, etc… named for the king
1619: The House of Burgesses An elected legislative body Burgess = a person invested with all the privileges of a citizen Male landowners over age 17 eligible to vote for representatives Any decision required the approval of the Virginia Company in London First seed of American democracy
COLONY # 2 MASSACHUSETTS
FIRST SETTLEMENT Plymouth FOUNDED 1620
English Reformation 16 th century movement for religious reform Led to the founding of churches that rejected the Pope’s authority Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England (Anglican Church)
Puritans A group in England who wanted to reform the Church of England Wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholicism
Separatists Puritans who opposed those who wanted to reform the Church of England from within and wanted to form their own separate congregations
Pilgrims Separatists who fled England to escape persecution Holland North America
Mayflower Compact 1620 Considered the first self-government in the colonies, based on majority rule Radical idea Government depends on the consent of the governed
Massachusetts Bay Company Joint Stock company that funded the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Boston – capital city
COLONY # 3 NEW HAMPSHIRE 1623
NEW HAMPSHIRE FIRST SETTLEMENT Exeter FOUNDED 1623 LEADER John Wheelwright
COLONY # 4 CONNECTICUT 1636
CONNECTICUT FIRST SETTLEMENT Hartford FOUNDED 1636 LEADER Thomas Hooker
Fundamental Orders 1639 Considered the 1st constitution governing colonial Connecticut Establishing a democratic state, limited government, representatives, and non- church members could vote
COLONY # 5 MARYLAND 1632
MARYLAND FIRST SETTLEMENT St. Mary’s FOUNDED 1632 LEADER George Calvert –the first Lord Baltimore
Lord Baltimore Catholic Englishman Founded the Maryland colony on the idea of religious freedom where Protestants and Catholics could live together in peace
Maryland Act of Toleration Landmark act passed by the Maryland assembly Guaranteed freedom of religion ( but only for Christians ) Radical idea at this time The penalty for anyone who did not believe in Christ was to be hanged No toleration for Jews, atheists, muslims, etc…
COLONY # 6 RHODE ISLAND 1636
RHODE ISLAND FIRST SETTLEMENT Providence FOUNDED 1636 LEADER Roger Williams
Puritan who was tolerant of other religions Did not believe in killing or punishing people in the name of Christianity Did not believe in a tax supported church Supported separation of church and state Indian land should be paid for Banished from MBC for his beliefs
Roger Williams Started a colony called Providence which would become RI Bought land from the Native Americans to start the colony Narranganset Indians helped him when he was banished Based on “freedom of conscience” Attracted Quakers, Catholics, Jews
Ann Hutchinson Religious dissenter (like Roger Williams) Put on trial for her beliefs Banished from the MBC Fled to RI and later to NY
COLONY # 7 DELAWARE 1638
DELAWARE FIRST SETTLEMENT Wilmington FOUNDED 1638 – originally part of the land granted for Pennsylvania LEADER Peter Minuit
COLONY # 8 & #9 THE CAROLINAS 1663
NORTH CAROLINA FIRST SETTLEMENT Albemarie County FOUNDED 1663 LEADER Group of eight proprietors
SOUTHCAROLINA FIRST SETTLEMENT Charles Town (later Charleston) FOUNDED 1663 LEADER Group of eight proprietors
Royal Colonies The Carolinas were the 1 st Royal Colonies Colonies ruled by governors appointed by the king The Carolinas became a refuge for French Protestants (Huguenots) Split in 1729 into North and South
COLONY # 10 NEW YORK 1664
NEW YORK FIRST SETTLEMENT New York FOUNDED 1664 LEADER Peter Minuit
Henry Hudson Dutch explorer searching for the Northwest Passage Land in North America he claimed for Holland called New Netherlands
Dutch West India Company The business that owned most of Holland’s colonies Fur trading More interested in its colonies in India
1664 –British take New Netherlands from Holland without firing a shot Given to the Duke of York by the King of England (his brother) renamed it New York
Proprietary Colonies New York became the first Proprietary Colony – a colony with a single owner Proprietary Owners of colonies expected the people who lived on their land to pay them a tax called a “quit rent”.
COLONY # 11 NEW JERSEY 1664
NEW JERSEY FIRST SETTLEMENT East Jersey – Carteret West Jersey – Salem FOUNDED 1664 LEADER Lord Berkeley Sir Carteret Was part of colony given to the Duke of York – he gave the New Jersey portion to his friends
COLONY # 12 PENNSYLVANIA 1681
PENNSYLVANIA FIRST SETTLEMENT Philadelphia FOUNDED 1681 LEADER William Penn
Follower of the Quakers, which his father disagreed with. King Charles II owned the Penn family a debt, and in payment gave them a charter for Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woods.)
Quakers Religious group that believed all mankind could live in peace and harmony. They welcomed different religions and ethnic groups. Made friends with local Native tribes, which helped make them one of the richest colonies.
COLONY # 13 GEORGIA 1732
GEORGIA FIRST SETTLEMENT Savannah FOUNDED 1732 LEADER James Oglethorpe
James Ogelthorpe Wanted to create a colony where debtors could go instead of going to jail Debtors ended up being only a small percentage of the actual settlers The buffer colony from Spanish colonies south (Florida) From French claims west (Louisiana)
The Backcountry Most colonies started in the coastal regions, but there were significant settlements in a region called the Backcountry as well – the area that ran along the Appalachian Mountains. Most settlers in the Backcountry were Scots-Irish The climate varied
3 Distinct Regions New England Colonies had long winters, rocky soil, and were mostly settled by English Middle Colonies had short winters, fertile soil, and were settled by people from all over Europe Southern Colonies had a warm climate, good soil, and many slaves working the plantations
Triangular Trade The New England Colonies made much of their money through the Triangular Trade – a trade route with three stops: New England colonies sent rum and iron to Africa, where it was traded for slaves Africa send slaves to the West Indies through the famously horrible Middle Passage and exchanged them for sugar and molasses From the West Indies, the sugar and molasses was sent to the New England colonies to make rum
Navigation Acts England wanted a sizable share of the profits from the colonies trade, so they passed the Navigation Acts to ensure it: All shipping had to be done in English ships Tobacco, wood, and sugar could only be sold to England and her colonies European imports had to go through English ports Any goods not shipped to England were taxed
Navigation Acts Though the Navigation Acts forced the colonies to share much of their profits with England, smuggling and pirates still interfered with the shipping. In order to insure mercantilism, many of the colonies started to be taken over by Royal Charters.
Decline of Puritans As the colonies grew rich, the Puritan religion declined for several reasons: Men started caring more about business than religion New Churches started and competed, making the Puritan church no longer dominant Charters changed to royal, guaranteeing religious freedom, and allowing non-church members the vote
Southern Slavery The Southern Colonies couldn’t compete with the trade in the North – their wealth depended on selling their crops for cash. For this they needed a large labor pool. When Native Americans were forced into slavery, they became susceptible to European diseases and died, so they were replaced by African Slaves. By the mid- 1700s, more than 40% of the Southern colonies were slaves.
Stono Rebellion Africans often resisted the loss of their culture, and their enslavement. The most famous resistance occurred in September 1739 when 20 slaves gathered at the Stono River south of Charleston. The slaves killed many planter families. A white militia group caught or killed all of the slaves involved – and those captured were executed.
New Ideals for Slavery Because of the Stono Rebellion, new laws were passed regarding slaves: Slaves could no longer leave plantations without permission Slaves could not meet with free blacks Inhumane treatment of African slaves became the norm in the South