2The New WorldAs early settlements started to succeed, new types of settlers set out for the New World.Pilgrims were a separatist group from England who rejected the Church of England because it was too similar to the Catholic Church that it broke from.When the government started attacking the Pilgrims for their beliefs, they fled to Holland, then to the New World.Pilgrims set out November 1620 on the Mayflower and landed in Massachusetts
3Pilgrim GovernmentThe Pilgrims landed outside of the limits of the charter they received, so they decided they must keep order for themselves.The Pilgrims signed an agreement, the Mayflower Compact, where the Pilgrims agreed to obey laws they made and agreed on for the good of the colonyIt was the first form of self-government and majority rule in the colonies.
4PuritansThe Puritans were a religious group who believed much differently than the Pilgrims. Rather than disagreeing with the Church of England, they wanted to purify their practices.Puritans were also treated poorly in England, so they left for America as well.Puritans started what they called the “New England Way.” This outlined Puritan beliefs and society – and stressed things like duty, godliness, hard work and honesty. You had to attend church and all community meetings in the local meeting house. Only church members could vote. They believed games and amusements led to laziness, but everyone needed to learn to read so they could read the Bible.
5Great MigrationBy 1630, Puritans were really being persecuted in England, so between 1630 and 1640 a Great Migration of Puritans began. Puritans fled to create new colonies around the world.20,000 came to New England under a charter by the Massachusetts Bay Company, to begin the Massachusetts Bay Colony.The Puritans were very well prepared and supplied, led by Governor John Winthrop who believed that all needed to work for the good of the whole.
6Expanding GovernmentThe Puritans started spreading out in the colonies. Thomas Hooker moved his followers to the Connecticut Valley. There they set up a government that limited the power of the Governor, and expanded the idea of representative government by allowing non-church members to vote as well.This government, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, was the first Constitutional type of Government in the colonies.
7Breaking AwayNot all colonial citizens agreed with the New England Way.Roger Williams, a Baptist minister in Massachusetts, was kicked out of the colony for his beliefs that you shouldn’t be required to attend church services, and that you shouldn’t be allowed to take Indian lands.He left Massachusetts and founded Rhode Island, where he guaranteed religious freedom and separation of church and state.
8Breaking AwayAnn Hutchinson was another Puritan forced out of Massachusetts when she challenged church authority. She believed that people didn’t need churches, ministers or Bibles to worship God, and she held religious meetings in her home.
9England plants colonies in North America THE THIRTEEN COLONIESEngland plants colonies in North America
11FIRST LASTING SETTLEMENT JamestownFOUNDED1607LEADERJohn Smith
12Virginia CompanyJoint Stock Company that funded the settlement of JamestownCharter from King James IJamestown, James River , etc… named for the king
131619: The House of Burgesses An elected legislative bodyBurgess = a person invested with all the privileges of a citizenMale landowners over age 17 eligible to vote for representativesAny decision required the approval of the Virginia Company in LondonFirst seed of American democracy
16English Reformation 16th century movement for religious reform Led to the founding of churches that rejected the Pope’s authorityHenry VIII broke with the Catholic Church and formed the Church of England (Anglican Church)
17Puritans A group in England who wanted to reform the Church of England Wanted to eliminate all traces of Roman Catholicism
18SeparatistsPuritans who opposed those who wanted to reform the Church of England from within and wanted to form their own separate congregations
19Pilgrims Separatists who fled England to escape persecution Holland North America
20Mayflower Compact1620Considered the first self-government in the colonies, based on majority ruleRadical ideaGovernment depends on the consent of the governed
21Massachusetts Bay Company Joint Stock company that funded the establishment of the Massachusetts Bay ColonyBoston – capital city
28MARYLAND FIRST SETTLEMENT FOUNDED LEADER St. Mary’s 1632 George Calvert –the first Lord Baltimore
29Lord Baltimore Catholic Englishman Founded the Maryland colony on the idea of religious freedom where Protestants and Catholics could live together in peace
30Maryland Act of Toleration Landmark act passed by the Maryland assemblyGuaranteed freedom of religion ( but only for Christians )Radical idea at this timeThe penalty for anyone who did not believe in Christ was to be hangedNo toleration for Jews, atheists, muslims, etc…
32RHODE ISLAND FIRST SETTLEMENT FOUNDED LEADER Providence 1636 Roger Williams
33Roger Williams Puritan who was tolerant of other religions Did not believe in killing or punishing people in the name of ChristianityDid not believe in a tax supported churchSupported separation of church and stateIndian land should be paid forBanished from MBC for his beliefs
34Roger WilliamsStarted a colony called Providence which would become RIBought land from the Native Americans to start the colonyNarranganset Indians helped him when he was banishedBased on “freedom of conscience”Attracted Quakers, Catholics, Jews
35Ann Hutchinson Religious dissenter (like Roger Williams) Put on trial for her beliefsBanished from the MBCFled to RI and later to NY
39NORTH CAROLINA FIRST SETTLEMENT FOUNDED LEADER Albemarie County 1663 Group of eight proprietors
40SOUTHCAROLINA FIRST SETTLEMENT FOUNDED LEADER Charles Town (later Charleston)FOUNDED1663LEADERGroup of eight proprietors
41Royal Colonies The Carolinas were the 1st Royal Colonies Colonies ruled by governors appointed by the kingThe Carolinas became a refuge for French Protestants (Huguenots)Split in 1729 into North and South
44Henry Hudson Dutch explorer searching for the Northwest Passage Land in North America he claimed for Holland called New Netherlands
45Dutch West India Company The business that owned most of Holland’s coloniesFur tradingMore interested in its colonies in India
461664 –British take New Netherlands from Holland without firing a shotGiven to the Duke of York by the King of England (his brother)renamed it New York
47Proprietary ColoniesNew York became the first Proprietary Colony – a colony with a single ownerProprietary Owners of colonies expected the people who lived on their land to pay them a tax called a “quit rent”.
49NEW JERSEY FIRST SETTLEMENT FOUNDED LEADER East Jersey – Carteret West Jersey – SalemFOUNDED1664LEADERLord BerkeleySir CarteretWas part of colony given to the Duke of York – he gave the New Jersey portion to his friends
51PENNSYLVANIA FIRST SETTLEMENT FOUNDED LEADER Philadelphia 1681 William Penn
52William Penn Follower of the Quakers, which his father disagreed with. King Charles II owned the Penn family a debt, and in payment gave them a charter for Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woods.)
53QuakersReligious group that believed all mankind could live in peace and harmony. They welcomed different religions and ethnic groups.Made friends with local Native tribes, which helped make them one of the richest colonies.
56James OgelthorpeWanted to create a colony where debtors could go instead of going to jailDebtors ended up being only a small percentage of the actual settlersThe buffer colonyfrom Spanish colonies south (Florida)From French claims west (Louisiana)
57The BackcountryMost colonies started in the coastal regions, but there were significant settlements in a region called the Backcountry as well – the area that ran along the Appalachian Mountains.Most settlers in the Backcountry were Scots-IrishThe climate varied
583 Distinct RegionsNew England Colonies had long winters, rocky soil, and were mostly settled by EnglishMiddle Colonies had short winters, fertile soil, and were settled by people from all over EuropeSouthern Colonies had a warm climate, good soil, and many slaves working the plantations
59Triangular TradeThe New England Colonies made much of their money through the Triangular Trade – a trade route with three stops:New England colonies sent rum and iron to Africa, where it was traded for slavesAfrica send slaves to the West Indies through the famously horrible Middle Passage and exchanged them for sugar and molassesFrom the West Indies, the sugar and molasses was sent to the New England colonies to make rum
60Navigation ActsEngland wanted a sizable share of the profits from the colonies trade, so they passed the Navigation Acts to ensure it:All shipping had to be done in English shipsTobacco, wood, and sugar could only be sold to England and her coloniesEuropean imports had to go through English portsAny goods not shipped to England were taxed
61Navigation ActsThough the Navigation Acts forced the colonies to share much of their profits with England, smuggling and pirates still interfered with the shipping.In order to insure mercantilism, many of the colonies started to be taken over by Royal Charters.
62Decline of PuritansAs the colonies grew rich, the Puritan religion declined for several reasons:Men started caring more about business than religionNew Churches started and competed, making the Puritan church no longer dominantCharters changed to royal, guaranteeing religious freedom, and allowing non-church members the vote
63Southern SlaveryThe Southern Colonies couldn’t compete with the trade in the North – their wealth depended on selling their crops for cash. For this they needed a large labor pool.When Native Americans were forced into slavery, they became susceptible to European diseases and died, so they were replaced by African Slaves. By the mid-1700s, more than 40% of the Southern colonies were slaves.
64Stono RebellionAfricans often resisted the loss of their culture, and their enslavement.The most famous resistance occurred in September 1739 when 20 slaves gathered at the Stono River south of Charleston. The slaves killed many planter families. A white militia group caught or killed all of the slaves involved – and those captured were executed.
65New Ideals for SlaveryBecause of the Stono Rebellion, new laws were passed regarding slaves:Slaves could no longer leave plantations without permissionSlaves could not meet with free blacksInhumane treatment of African slaves became the norm in the South