Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary. Once you are satisfied that you understand.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary. Once you are satisfied that you understand."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary. Once you are satisfied that you understand the concepts and procedures, click CLOSE to get out of the tutorial mode. You will then be taken to the post-quiz. PLEASE LISTEN CAREFULLY CLICK TO CONTINUE

3 In a sample of the element hydrogen all the particles are hydrogen atoms but in the compound carbon monoxide the particles contain both carbon and oxygen atoms. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ELEMENTS versus COMPOUNDS) CLICK TO CONTINUE

4 In the compound sodium chloride one electron has been transferred from each sodium atom to each chlorine atom, producing positively charged sodium cations and negatively charged chloride anions. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (IONIC versus COVALENT BONDS)

5 However, in the compound hydrogen chloride, the hydrogen atom and the chlorine atom each supply one electron to produce an electron pair which they share. CLICK TO CONTINUE (IONIC versus COVALENT BONDS)

6 In sodium chloride (ionic) sodium has a positive charge and chlorine has a negative charge. In hydrogen chloride (covalent) hydrogen and chloride share a pair of electrons. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (IONIC versus COVALENT BONDS) CLICK TO CONTINUE

7 A sample of sodium chloride contains alternating Na + and Cl - ions; a sample of hydrogen chloride contains discrete HCl molecules; LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (IONIC versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS)

8 a sample of hydrogen contains discrete H2H2 molecules; a sample of chlorine contains discrete Cl 2 molecules. CLICK TO CONTINUE (IONIC versus MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS)

9 The bond is represented by a single line drawn between H and Cl. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (SINGLE COVALENT BOND)

10 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (DOUBLE COVALENT BOND) The bond is represented by two parallel lines between two Os.

11 CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (TRIPLE COVALENT BOND) The bond is represented by three parallel lines between C and N.N.

12 IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING) CLICK TO CONTINUE

13 Note, however, that hydrogen is a nonmetal although it has one valence electron. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING) CLICK TO CONTINUE

14 Sodium is in Group IA and has one valence electron. It transfers one electron to chlorine which is in Group VIIA and has seven valence electrons. (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

15 As a result, sodium atoms become positively charged sodium cations and chlorine atoms become negatively charged chloride anions so that they both obey the Octet rule. (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

16 Hydrogen is in Group IA and has one valence electron. Chlorine is in Group VIIA and has seven valence electrons. Each will supply one electron for sharing and in this way obey the Octet rule. CLICK TO CONTINUE (LEWIS THEORY OF BONDING)

17 The covalent bonds in the hydrogen molecule and in the chlorine molecule are nonpolar because in both cases the atoms in the bond are identical, and so there is equal sharing of electrons; LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR COVALENT BONDS)

18 hydrogen chloride, however, is polar because the atoms differ in electronegativity. CLICK TO CONTINUE (NONPOLAR versus POLAR COVALENT BONDS)

19 Although the two oxygen-oxygen bonds in O3 O3 are asymmetrically arranged, the molecule is nonpolar. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

20 BF 3 is nonpolar because the three fluorine atoms are symmetrically arranged around the central boron. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

21 Similarly, SF 6 is nonpolar because the S-F S-F bonds are symmetrically arranged. CLICK TO CONTINUE (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

22 Water is polar because the two hydrogen atoms are asymmetrically arranged around the central oxygen. LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

23 ICl 3 is polar because the three I-Cl atoms are asymmetrically arranged. CLICK TO CONTINUE (NONPOLAR versus POLAR MOLECULES)

24 BeH 2 has four electrons around the central beryllium and BH 3 has six electrons around the central boron. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (OCTET RULE DISOBEYED)

25 CLICK TO CONTINUE

26 PI5 PI5 has ten electrons around the central phosphorus (Group VA) and XeCl 4 has twelve electrons around the central xenon (Group VIIIA.) CLICK TO CONTINUE (OCTET RULE DISOBEYED)

27 s and p orbitals. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (VALENCE BOND THEORY OF BONDING)

28 In BeH 2, the central Be bonds with sp orbitals. One s orbital and one p orbital together form two linearly arranged sp hybrid orbitals. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (HYBRID ORBITALS)

29 One s orbital and two p orbitals together form three sp 2 hybrid orbitals in a trigonal planar arrangement; In BF 3, the central B bonds with sp 2 orbitals. CLICK TO CONTINUE (HYBRID ORBITALS)

30 One s orbital and three p orbitals together form four tetrahedrally-arranged sp 3 hybrid orbitals. In CH 4, the central C bonds with sp 3 orbitals. CLICK TO CONTINUE (HYBRID ORBITALS)

31 One d orbital, one s orbital and three p orbitals together form five dsp 3 hybrid orbitals in trigonal bipyramid arrangement. In PI 5, the central P bonds with dsp 3 orbitals. CLICK TO CONTINUE (HYBRID ORBITALS)

32 Two d orbitals, one s orbital and three p orbitals together form six octahedrally-arranged d 2 sp 3 hybrid orbitals. In SF 6, the central S bonds with d 2 sp 3 orbitals. CLICK TO CONTINUE (HYBRID ORBITALS)

33 A region of high electron density may be a single bond, a double bond, a triple bond or a nonbonding electron pair. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

34 In BeH 2 there are two pairs of valence electrons around the central Be (Group IIA) and so the electronic geometry is linear. Both electron pairs are involved in bonding and so the shape, or molecular geometry, is also linear. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

35 In BF 3 there are three pairs of valence electrons around the central B (Group IIIA) and so the electronic geometry is trigonal planar. All the electron pairs are involved in bonding and so the shape, or molecular geometry, is also trigonal planar. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

36 In CH 4 there are four pairs of valence electrons around the central C (Group IVA) and so the electronic geometry is tetrahedral. All the electron pairs are involved in bonding and so the shape, or molecular geometry, is also tetrahedral. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

37 In PI 5 there are five pairs of valence electrons around the central P (Group VA) and so the electronic geometry is trigonal bipyramid. All the electron pairs are involved in bonding and so the shape, or molecular geometry, is also trigonal bipyramid. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

38 In SF 6 there are six pairs of valence electrons around the central S (Group VIA) and so the electronic geometry is octahedral. All the electron pairs are involved in bonding and so the shape, or molecular geometry, is also octahedral. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

39 O3 O3 has three sp 2 hybrid orbitals around the central O,O, giving it trigonal planar electronic geometry. One of these orbitals is nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is angular, or bent. CLICK TO CONTINUE LISTEN THOUGHTFULLY GO AT YOUR OWN PACE MAKE NOTES AS NECESSARY (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

40 NH 3 has four sp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central N, giving it tetrahedral electronic geometry. One of these orbitals is nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is trigonal pyramid. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

41 H 2 O has four sp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central O, giving it tetrahedral electronic geometry. Two of these orbitals are nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is bent, or angular. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

42 OH - has four sp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central O, giving it tetrahedral electronic geometry. Its molecular geometry is linear because there are only two atoms in the molecule. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

43 SF 4 has five dsp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central S, giving it trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry. One of these orbitals is nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is see-saw. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

44 ICl 3 has five dsp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central I (Group VIIA), giving it trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry. Two of these orbitals are nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is see-saw. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

45 XeH 2 has five dsp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central Xe, giving it trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry. Three of these orbitals are nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is linear. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

46 BrF 5 has six d 2 sp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central Br, giving it octahedral electronic geometry. One of these orbitals is nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is square pyramid. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

47 XeCl 4 has six d 2 sp 3 hybrid orbitals around the central Xe, giving it octahedral electronic geometry. Two of these orbitals are nonbonding and so its molecular geometry is square planar. CLICK TO CONTINUE (ELECTRONIC and MOLECULAR GEOMETRY)

48 CLICK TO CONTINUE BF 3 nonpolar O 3 nonpolar trigonal planar angular trigonal planar sp 2 3 BeH 2 nonpolar linear20 sp2 Example and polarity Molecular geometry No. of bonds No. of lone pairs Electronic geometry Hybrid- ization No. of electron pairs VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE

49 CLICK TO CONTINUE CH 4 nonpolar NH 3 polar H 2 O polar tetrahedral trigonal pyramid angular or bent tetrahedralsp 3 4 Example and polarity Molecular geometry No. of bonds No. of lone pairs Electronic geometry Hybrid- ization No. of electron pairs VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE (cont’d)

50 CLICK TO CONTINUE Example and polarity Molecular geometry No. of bonds No. of lone pairs Electronic geometry Hybridi- zation No. of electron pairs PCl 5 nonpolar SF 4 polar ICl 3 polar XeF 2 nonpolar trigonal bipyramid see-saw T-shaped linear trigonal bipyramid dsp 3 5 VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE (cont’d)

51 [END OF TUTORIAL] CLICK TO CONTINUE Example and polarity Molecular geometry No. of bonds No. of lone pairs Electronic geometry Hybridi- zation No. of electron pairs SF 6 polar BrF 3 nonpolar XeF 4 polar octahedral square pyramid square planar octahedrald 2 sp 3 6 VALENCE BOND THEORY SUMMARIZATION TABLE (cont’d)

52 RETURN TO TUTORIAL CLOSE and GO TO POST-QUIZ OR


Download ppt "TUTORIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Carefully go through the tutorial, step by step. You may return to any section, as necessary. Once you are satisfied that you understand."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google