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The Civil Rights Movement Copyright: Jerry Judd 1-31-05.

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1 The Civil Rights Movement Copyright: Jerry Judd 1-31-05

2 I. The Segregation System During the 1890’s, many states throughout the nation, but especially in the South, passed “Jim Crow” laws aimed at segregating (or separating) the races. There were segregated schools, railroad cars, elevators, and rest rooms.

3 Two Types of Segregation de jure segregation is segregation imposed by law (de jure is latin for lawful) Example: Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) de facto segregation is segregation by fact or circumstance. Very often this is not a conscious choice. A good example is found in neighborhoods, frequently there is a white neighborhood or a black neighborhood, this concentration can lead to schools that are predominately one race. (de facto is latin for by fact)

4 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court case in which the court upheld segregation by ruling that “separate but equal” facilities did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment.

5 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

6 Brown v. Bd. Of Education 1954 Supreme Court case challenging segregation in public schools; in it the court ruled that separate facilities were unequal and therefore an unconstitutional violation of the 14 th Amendment. Brown Family Thurgood Marshall

7 Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Fifty Thousand African Americans organized a boycott against the bus system of Montgomery, AL, when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger.

8 Crisis in Little Rock 1957 Elizabeth Eckford bravely walked alone through a crowd of angry, jeering whites before she was turned away from entering Little Rock’s Central High School.

9 Elizabeth Eckford, left, one of the Little Rock Nine who integrated Central High School in 1957, talks with Hazel Massery in front of the school in Little Rock, Ark. Monday, Sept. 22, 1997. Massery (whose name was then Hazel Bryan) was a student protestor captured in photos heckling Eckford after she was turned away from the school by the Arkansas National Guard Sept. 4, 1957.

10 Martin Luther King Jr. And Non-Violence King believed in the power of non- violent resistance, the peaceful refusal to obey unjust laws. King called his brand of non-violent resistance “soul force”. He based his ideas on the teachings of the following people:

11 Henry David Thoreau From writer Henry David Thoreau he took the concept of Civil Disobedience- the refusal to obey an unjust law.

12 A. Philip Randolph From labor organizer A. Philip Randolph he learned to organize massive demonstrations.

13 Mohandas Gandhi From Mohandas Gandhi, the leader who helped India throw off British rule, he learned to resist oppression without violence.

14 Jesus Christ From Jesus, King learned to love one’s enemies. King said: “We will not hate you, but we cannot obey your unjust laws…We will soon wear you down by our capacity to suffer. And in winning our freedom, we will so appeal to your heart and conscience that we will win you in the process.”

15 Major Civil Rights Organizations ACRONYM NAME MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS CORE CONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITY FREEDOM RIDES NAACP NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION SCLC SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA, CIVIL RIGHTS CAMPAIGN; MARCH ON WASHINGTON SNCC STUDENT NONVIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE FREEDOM SUMMER

16 Sit-ins Sit-in demon- strators, such as these at a Jackson, Mississippi, lunch counter in 1963, faced intimidation and humiliation from white segregationists.

17 Freedom Rides Bus rides through the south in the early 1960’s to challenge segregation, particularly in inter- state transportation. Often these civil rights activists were met with violence. Freedom Ride 50th anniversary

18 Integrating Ole Miss Riots broke out on the campus of the University of Miss- issippi when James Meredith won a federal court case allowing him to enroll in the all- white university.

19 Freedom Summer A 1964 project to register African-American voters in Mississippi. For some, the job proved deadly. Three civil rights workers were murdered by Klansmen and local police in Neshoba County, Mississippi.

20 Selma March In 1965, SCLC organized a march from Selma, AL., to Montgomery, AL., to support voting rights. That summer, Congress finally passed President Johnson’s Voting Rights Act of 1965. Bridge to Freedom

21 Black Power As the civil rights movement grew, many African Americans questioned the effectiveness of non- violence. Others began to question the desirability of integration altogether. Adopting a slogan of Black Power, many of these leaders began to go in another direction.

22 Malcolm X In 1946, while in prison, Malcolm embraced the teachings of Elijah Muhammads’s Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims, an offshoot of the orthodox Islamic faith. He began to preach black separatism and armed self-defense.

23 Black Panthers A militant African- American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto.

24 King is Assassinated On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, TN, by James Earl Ray.

25 “Because I’ve been to the mountaintop….and I’ve looked over….and I’ve seen the Promise Land….I may not get there with you but….we as a people will get to the Promise Land.” http:// 1968 - Martin Luther King's Prophetic Last speech - Remember 1968 - Martin Luther King's Prophetic Last speech - Remember

26 Legacy of the CRM Gains 1. End of legalized segregation 2. Constitutional and legal pro- tection of civil rights and voting rights. 3. Increased pride in racial identity. 4. More African- American voters, elected officials, and high school and college graduates. Unfinished Work 1.The movement still faces such challenges as: *housing and job discrimination *educational inequality *poverty *racism *lack of jobs 1.Affirmative Action pro- grams involve making special efforts to hire or enroll groups that have suffered discrimination.

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