2I. The Segregation System During the 1890’s, many states throughout the nation, butespecially in the South, passed “Jim Crow” laws aimed atsegregating (or separating) the races. There were segregatedschools, railroad cars, elevators, and rest rooms.
3Two Types of Segregation de jure segregation is segregation imposed by law (de jure is latin for lawful) Example: Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)de facto segregation is segregation by fact or circumstance. Very often this is not a conscious choice. A good example is found in neighborhoods, frequently there is a white neighborhood or a black neighborhood, this concentration can lead to schools that are predominately one race. (de facto is latin for by fact)
4Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court case in which the court upheld segregationby ruling that “separatebut equal” facilities didnot violate the FourteenthAmendment.
5Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
6Brown v. Bd. Of Education 1954Supreme Court case challenging segregation in public schools;in it the court ruled that separate facilities were unequal andtherefore an unconstitutional violation of the 14th Amendment.Thurgood MarshallBrown Family
7Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Fifty ThousandAfrican Americansorganized a boycottagainst the bus systemof Montgomery, AL,when Rosa Parkswas arrested forrefusing to give upher seat to a whitepassenger.
8Crisis in Little Rock 1957 Elizabeth Eckford bravely walked alone through acrowd of angry,jeering whitesbefore she wasturned away fromentering LittleRock’s CentralHigh School.
9Elizabeth Eckford, left, one of the Little Rock Nine who integrated Central High School in 1957, talks with Hazel Massery in front of the school in Little Rock, Ark. Monday, Sept. 22, Massery (whose name was then Hazel Bryan) was a student protestor captured in photos heckling Eckford after she was turned away from the school by the Arkansas National Guard Sept. 4, 1957.
10Martin Luther King Jr. And Non-Violence King believed in the power of non-violent resistance,the peaceful refusalto obey unjust laws.King called his brandof non-violentresistance “soul force”.He based his ideas onthe teachings of thefollowing people:
11Henry David Thoreau From writer Henry David Thoreau he took the concept ofCivil Disobedience-the refusal to obeyan unjust law.
12A. Philip RandolphFrom labor organizer A. Philip Randolph he learned toorganize massive demonstrations.
13Mohandas GandhiFrom Mohandas Gandhi, the leader who helped India throw off British rule, he learned to resist oppression without violence.
14Jesus Christ From Jesus, King learned to love one’s enemies. King said: “We will not hateyou, but we cannot obeyyour unjust laws…We willsoon wear you down by ourcapacity to suffer. And inwinning our freedom, we willso appeal to your heart andconscience that we will winyou in the process.”
15MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS Major Civil Rights OrganizationsACRONYMNAMEMAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTSCORECONGRESS OF RACIAL EQUALITYFREEDOM RIDESNAACPNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLEBROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATIONSCLCSOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP CONFERENCEBIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA, CIVIL RIGHTS CAMPAIGN; MARCH ON WASHINGTONSNCCSTUDENT NONVIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEEFREEDOM SUMMER
16Sit-ins Sit-in demon- strators, such as these at a Jackson, Mississippi, lunchcounter in 1963,faced intimidationand humiliationfrom whitesegregationists.
17Freedom Rides Bus rides through the south in the early 1960’s to challenge segregation,particularly in inter-state transportation.Often these civil rightsactivists were metwith violence.Freedom Ride 50th anniversary
18Integrating Ole Miss Riots broke out on the campus of the University of Miss-issippi when JamesMeredith won afederal court caseallowing himto enroll in the all-white university.
19Freedom Summer A 1964 project to register African-American voters in Mississippi.For some, the jobproved deadly. Threecivil rights workerswere murdered byKlansmen and localpolice in NeshobaCounty, Mississippi.
20Selma March In 1965, SCLC organized a march from Selma, AL., to Montgomery, AL.,to support votingrights. That summer,Congress finallypassed PresidentJohnson’s VotingRights Act of 1965.Bridge to Freedom
21Black Power As the civil rights movement grew, many African Americans questioned theeffectiveness of non-violence. Others beganto question thedesirability of integrationaltogether. Adoptinga slogan of Black Power,many of these leadersbegan to go in anotherdirection.
22Malcolm X In 1946, while in prison, Malcolm embraced the teachings of ElijahMuhammads’s Nationof Islam, or BlackMuslims, an offshootof the orthodoxIslamic faith. He beganto preach blackseparatism and armedself-defense.
23Black Panthers A militant African- American political organization formedin 1966 by HueyNewton and BobbySeale to fight policebrutality and toprovide services inthe ghetto.
24King is Assassinated On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated inMemphis, TN,by James EarlRay.
25“Because I’ve been to the mountaintop….and I’ve looked over….and I’ve seen the Promise Land….Imay not get there with you but….we as a peoplewill get to the Promise Land.”- Martin Luther King's Prophetic Last speech - Remember
26Legacy of the CRM Gains Unfinished Work 1. End of legalized segregation2. Constitutionaland legal pro-tection of civilrights and votingrights.3. Increased pridein racial identity.4. More African-American voters,elected officials,and high schooland collegegraduates.Unfinished WorkThe movement still facessuch challenges as:*housing and jobdiscrimination*educational inequality*poverty*racism*lack of jobsAffirmative Action pro-grams involve makingspecial efforts to hire orenroll groups that havesuffered discrimination.