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Mercantilism Early Years of The Republic 1763 Onward Enlightenment & Social Contract Constitution.

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Presentation on theme: "Mercantilism Early Years of The Republic 1763 Onward Enlightenment & Social Contract Constitution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mercantilism Early Years of The Republic 1763 Onward Enlightenment & Social Contract Constitution

2 (A) What did the mother country plan on selling, in its colonies? AND (B) What did the mother country plan on buying from its colonies? Manufactured goods Raw materials

3 How would mercantilism drive different countries into conflict with each other? Every (mother) country was trying to sell manufactured products to other countries, and everybody's colonies, while trying to keep the manufactured products of other countries from being sold in their own country, or colonies. Also, each country was trying to get colonies, which would provide them with raw materials.

4 Why would a mother country want to place tariffs on goods produced by other countries? Because they would want their colonies to purchase (manufactured) products from the mother country, as opposed to from foreign countries.

5 How would the Navigation Acts have placed American merchants and farmers at a disadvantage, when negotiating and selling to the British? The Navigation Acts listed certain enumerated articles, which could only be sold to British merchants (and to merchants from no other nation). This forced the American suppliers to accept the low prices that the British could offer, because they couldn’t sell those goods anywhere else.

6 Identify three things the Navigation Acts did. The Navigation Act of 1650 said that ships and their crews, coming into the ports of England or its colonies, had to be English. The Navigation Act of 1660 said that certain goods could only be shipped to England or another colony. The Navigation Act of 1663 said that goods going to America had to stop in England and pay duties first. The Navigation Act of 1696 allowed the British the right to forcible entry when searching for smuggled goods.

7 According to social contract theory, what bad things happen when there is no government? What is this type of society called? People’s rights are not respected—everybody violates the rights of everybody else. This type of society is called the state of nature.

8 What are natural rights? What do they have to do with government? Natural rights are rights that all people are born with—usually given as life, liberty, and property. These rights exist before government is created; government is created to protect these rights.

9 What is the two-way “contract” in the social contract theory? The people obey the government and its police authority. The government protects the people’s natural rights.

10 Under what conditions would the social contract theory accept the possibility of a revolution? If the government stopped protecting the people’s rights, and started violating them.

11 What political theory did Locke promote? What was the historical context of Locke’s writing? What events were happening in England at the time? Social Contract theory. The Glorious Revolution and promotion of the English Bill of Rights (1689).

12 Why did Britain impose the Stamp Act after the French and Indian War? To raise money that it had already spent in the war; it’s public debt nearly doubled, from £70 million to £140 million.

13 What was the American response to the Stamp Act? How did the British react to the American response (to the Stamp Act)? The Stamp Act Congress insisted that Parliament had no authority to levy direct taxes on the American colonies (that only American colonial legislatures could do this); they advocated a boycott of British goods. The British repealed the Stamp Act, but passed the Declaratory Act insisting that they did in fact have the power to tax the colonies.

14 Which of these statements was NOT made by the Suffolk Resolves? Colonists did not have to obey the laws of the new military governor of Massachusetts Colonists would go to any extent to obey all British laws Colonists would kidnap British officials in Massachusetts if they apprehended patriot protestors. Colonists would go to any extent to obey all British laws

15 Identify three elements of the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts. Boston Port Act closed the port of Boston until the tea had been paid for Royal appointment of high officials in Massachusetts Quartering Act moved troops into Boston itself officials could be transported out of colonies for trials Quebec Act allowed Catholics to hold office in Quebec, gave land claimed by American colonies to Quebec, and appointed many officials

16 How could it be said, that the French and Indian War helped bring about the American Revolution? As a result of fighting the war, Britain went deeply into debt, and had to raise taxes, and anger Americans by strongly enforcing its laws, which the Americans refused to put up with. Additionally, with France out of North America, Americans were less afraid of outside attacks, and were therefore less willing to pay high taxes.

17 According to social contract theory, what bad things happen when there is no government? What is this type of society called? People’s rights are not respected—everybody violates the rights of everybody else. This type of society is called the state of nature.

18 What are natural rights? What do they have to do with government? Natural rights are rights that all people are born with—usually given as life, liberty, and property. These rights exist before government is created; government is created to protect these rights.

19 Which of the following ideas was not a feature of Enlightenment thought? Which idea belongs in its place? A. Natural rights B. Social contract C. Mercantilism D. emphasis on education E. rejection of superstition C. Mercantilism This was commonly rejected in the Enlightenment, and instead, free trade (lowering tariffs on other countries’ goods) was emphasized.

20 Identify three ways in which Benjamin Franklin could be said to be a figure of the Enlightenment. Promoted religious tolerance Helped start an abolition society in his state (PA) Worked to further scientific knowledge Promoted education and readership by printing newspapers and other materials Worked to protect the political rights of American colonists

21 How did the Enlightenment contribute to American history? Enlightenment writers like Montesquieu were influential among the Founding Fathers (they created a government with separation of powers much like M. wrote about). They wrote of the American Revolution as justified by the abuses of British rule, using the social contract to do this.

22 Which of these was not a concern that drove Americans to hold the Constitutional Convention? A. foreign trade and tariffs B. Shay’s Rebellion took too long to be suppressed and made people wonder if government could maintain order C. Congress under the Articles of Confederation was accumulating too much power and people were fearing the emergence of a tyranny C. Congress under the Articles of Confederation was accumulating too much power and people were fearing the emergence of a tyranny As a matter of fact, the exact opposite was the case—Congress had very little power.

23 Identify two of the three authors of the Federalist Papers, as well as the reason why they were written. Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison; to persuade people to ratify the Constitution

24 State three arguments anti-federalists gave against the Constitution. 1.it allowed for a standing army 2. it had no bill of rights 3. it would allow for a national court system to overturn state laws 4. it was illegal according to the Articles of Confederation

25 What are the: Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, and Connecticut Compromise? Virginia Plan: states vote according to population New Jersey Plan: states vote equally Connecticut Compromise: in one house, states vote according to population, in the other, they vote equally

26 Identify two features of the Constitution that were designed to prevent the rise of tyranny. 1. Bicameral legislative body (two houses) 2. Separation of powers among three branches 3. checks and balances between the three branches 4. Federalism (authority divided between state and local levels)


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