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What are valence electrons?
What are valence electrons Electrons in the outermost energy level
What is the octet rule?
Rule that states that atoms will combine in such a way that each atom will have 8 electrons
Exceptions to octet rule?
Boron – 6 electrons P or S – 10 or 12 electrons H and He – 2 electrons
How to metals obey octet rule? How do non-metals obey octet rule?
Metals – give up electrons Non-metals – gain electrons
What is the formula for ions achieving noble gas configuration? Ca O Br Al
How do you determine the electron configuration for an ion?
First calculate number of electrons, then fill orbitals Ex: Mg +2
What is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond?
Ionic – opposite charged ions attract Covalent – atoms share electrons
How do ionic bonds form?
A bond between metal and nonmetal – metal will give up electrons to non-metal resulting in a cation and anion which are attracted by opposite charges
What are some characteristics of ionic compounds?
Made of anions and cations Called salts Higher BP and MP than covalent compounds – why?
How do you name ionic compounds?
Cation – keeps name Anion – ending turns to –ide If polyatomic, keeps name
CaBr 2 K 2 SO 4 Magnesium fluoride Ammonium phosphate
What elements form ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds?
Ionic – M and NM Covalent – NM and NM Metallic – M and M
What state are ionic compounds normally in? covalent compounds?
Ionic – solid Covalent – gas or liquid
What are some characteristics of metals?
Good electrical conductors due to movement of valence e - Ductile – drawn into wires Malleable – hammered into sheets
How many electrons shared in the following bonds: Ionic Single covalent Double covalent Triple covalent
How many electrons shared in the following bonds: Ionic - 0 Single covalent - 2 Double covalent - 4 Triple covalent - 6
What are diatomic molecules?
Molecules in which both atoms are the same
How do you determine how many bonds are in a molecule?
“Bond order” – calculate has, calculate want (want-has)/2 Example: CO
What type of electrons are found in molecules?
Bonding electrons Non-bonding (unshared or lone pair) electrons
What are all the possible types of bonds?
Ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, coordinate covalent, metallic
How do sigma bonds form?
How pi bonds formed?
Draw the Lewis structures for the following: NO 3 -1 CH 2 S C 2 H 2
What does VSEPR stand for? What does it mean?
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Electrons repel each other so shapes will result in them being far apart
What shape has 1 central atom surrounded by 4 atoms, no lone pairs on central atom?
What shape has 1 central atom surrounded by 3 atoms, one lone pair on central atom?
What shape has 1 central atom surrounded by 2 atoms, two lone pairs on central atom?
What shape has 1 central atom surrounded by 6 atoms, no lone pairs on central atom?
What shape has 1 central atom surrounded by 3 atoms, no lone pairs on central atom?
How can you determine if a bond is polar covalent, non-polar covalent or ionic?
What is happening in a polar covalent bond?
Electrons are being pulled towards the more electronegative atom resulting in a partial positive and partial negative charges
Would a bond be more polar covalent or less polar covalent if atoms have a large electronegativity difference?
More polar covalent
What is a dipole interaction?
Attraction between polar molecules
What is a hydrogen bond?
Attraction between polar molecules that occurs when H is bound to highly EN atom (N, O, F) and is attracted another highly EN atom
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