Presentation on theme: "Chapters 2,3,4 & 5 Social. China Rural or agricultural society ▫Urban empire ruling a rural/peasant population ▫Small groups of people living far from."— Presentation transcript:
China Rural or agricultural society ▫Urban empire ruling a rural/peasant population ▫Small groups of people living far from each other The Social classes reinforced by the government ▫Heredity and automatically passed power within the family Father to Son
China: Family Proper behavior and obedience Each family kept a detailed genealogy Respect, honor, and family name were super important Many genders lived together in one house
China: Social Classes Three main social classes characterized Han China: ▫The Scholar-Gentry: Their status was based on their control of large amounts of land and bureaucratic positions in government. ▫Ordinary, but free, citizens: The common people included a broad range, with the majority being peasants. Most peasants had a decent plot of land and lived well. All peasants were required to work a designated number of days each year on public works, and they also could be forced to join the army. ▫The Underclass: This category included many different groups including non-Han Chinese on the fringes of the empire.
India Caste system ▫Social class of hereditary and unchangeable status Aryans used the term Varna(Color) Refers to the social classes ▫In the beginning 4 major Varnas ▫During the classical era the caste system became much more complex Caste further subdivided into jati, or birth groups Each jati had little contact with they other.
India: The castes Four major Indian varnas: ▫Brahmins- the highest social classes were the priests and scholars; represented intellect and knowledge ▫Kshatriya- Warriors and government officials ▫Vaishya- Land owners, merchants, and artisans ▫Shudra- Represented by common peasants and laborers
Greece Male Dominated society Hellenism ▫Rise of a middle class The most important social distinction in most city-states was between: ▫Citizen ▫Non-citizen
Greece: Athens In Athens they developed a clear urban-based aristocracy. Class Distinctions ▫Aristocrats lived in the city, worked in government (political rights) ▫Farmers lived outside urban area (political rights) ▫Commoners lived in the city but were not aristocrats (political rights) ▫Slaves 30 percent of the population (no political rights)
Greece: Sparta All Spartan citizens were theoretically equal in status. Distinctions among citizens were based on athletic prowess and military talent. ▫Spartan educational system prepared boys to be soldiers around the age of seven. Spartans maintained the system of equality based on military values even after they became an aristocracy.
Rome During Republic two main groups ▫Patricians – wealthy landowners ▫Plebeians – farmers and workers The roles of the family ▫Men – father held power ▫Women – mother managed household ▫Children – education at home Multigenerational family ▫Domestic slaves ▫Oldest living male has complete authority: paterfamilias
China Women very few rights ▫BUT very well treated ▫Controlled by all men especially Husband ▫Left their fathers house to move into husbands house Women were obedient to the control of all men, especially their husbands. Women were considered weak and insignificant. They were used for entertainment, producing children, and doing house hold chores.
China As time goes on China grew more strict toward women Male sons were considered favorable Marriages were arranged Upper class ▫Educated in writing, arts and music Lower class ▫Traditional family jobs
India Women lost rights under the Indian Hindu caste system ▫Women did not have the same rights as men Obey fathers Obey husbands If husband died, obey sons Sometimes they would throw themselves on the burning dead bodies of their husbands: Sati ▫Polygamy was also practiced Hindu: Women should be respected but are subject to the authority of men
Greece: Sparta Sparta: women had more power than other places Were still under the control of men BUT were allowed to participate equally in some aspects of public life Social, economic, athletic They were important because of their ability to produce and raise strong Spartan men
Greece: Athens Strict patriarchal social system Women were sometimes slaves Greece: Marriages were often arranged during the Hellenistic period Women’s position improved somewhat Veil outside the house During the women's life cycle she is controlled by 1.Father 2.Husband 3.Son
Rome Women were not allowed to be citizens but were better off than in Greece or China Upper class women were given power within the household It is their domain Had some land rights
Mesoamerica Women were given specific roles in society that started from birth. Women were given many roles in daily life they were to fulfill ▫raising children ▫grinding maze into floor ▫preparing food, and watching after the animals. Women were considered lower than men ▫were respected because they were so vital in the running of a family.