Presentation on theme: "Sources of the Democratic Tradition 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1689"— Presentation transcript:
1Sources of the Democratic Tradition 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1689 Chapter 1Sources of the Democratic Tradition2000 B.C.-A.D. 1689
2Standards Preview 10.1Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.
3Chapter Focus Question What are the main historical sources of the democratic tradition?
4The Greek Roots of Democracy Section 1The Greek Roots of Democracy
5Focus QuestionWhat ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world?
6The Rise of Greek City-States Geography & PowerCity-state – political unit made up of a city and the surrounding landsImportance of city-statesGeographical featuresGoverning the City-States, B.C.Monarchy – king or queen exercise central powerAristocracy – small ruling noble landownersChanges in warfare
7The Rise of Greek City-States Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers Sparta – military stateMonarchy2 kings, council of elders, assembly of citizens, five ephorsCitizenship – native born Spartan men over age 30State-owned slavesSystem of strict control over people’s livesEmphasis on military virtues and discipline, fitness and healthBeginning of military training for boys at age 8Prohibition against trade, travel, or mixing with other city-statesScornful of wealthWomen expected to obey men; allowed to own property
8The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: A Limited Democracy Athens – development of democracyGlorification of individualMovement toward Democracy (government by the people); limited citizenship; rise of tyrantsWealth and power of aristocracyParticipation in government by male citizensSlaves with no political rights or personal freedomMilitary training and broad education for boysTrade with other city-statesLimited rights for women
9The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: Rulers & Philosophers Solon – reformed Athens to ensure greater fairness & justice, 594 B.C.Opened offices to more citizensGave Athenian assembly more say in decisionsTyrants – leaders who gain power by forcePisistratus, 546 B.C.Seized power by forceGave farmers and poor citizens a greater voiceWeakened the aristocracy
10The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: Rulers & Philosophers Tyrants (cont)Cleisthenes & Legislature (lawmaking body)Broadened the role of ordinary citizens in governmentSet up the Council of 500Made the assembly a genuine legislature
11The Rise of Greek City-States What process took city-states from monarch to aristocracy and, in Athens, to democracy?Defenders of the king (noble landowners) gradually took power for themselves (aristocracy)Military changes increased the power of the middle class (Iron weapons replaced bronze)Athens – leaders gave ordinary citizens control over government
12The Persian Wars 500 B.C. – Athens is “Top Dog” Persians, Asia Minor 490 B.C. – Battle of MarathonUse of geography480 B.C. – Battle of ThermopylaeHow did the Greeks meet the threat of invasion by the Persians?
13Athens in the Age of Pericles Pericles, Athenian StatesmanLed a thriving economy and more democratic governmentBelieved all male citizens – regardless of wealth or social class – should take part in governmentStressed the rights and duties of individuals as citizens of a democracyExpressed the earliest and greatest democratic ideals in his Funeral Oration
14Athens in the Age of Pericles Political LifeDirect DemocracyJury – a panel of citizens who have the authority to make the final judgment in a trialThe Funeral OrationPower rested in the hands “not of a minority but of the whole people”Rights & duties of the individual
15Athens in the Age of Pericles Economic & Cultural LifeRebuild what the Persians had destroyedCreate jobsHonor gods with temples & festivalsThe Peloponnesian WarSparta vs. Athens (27 years)What progress did the Greeks under Pericles make toward democratic government?
16Greek Philosophers Philosophers = lovers of wisdom Moral & Ethical PrinciplesIdea of goodnessStandards of human behaviorSophists – questioned accepted ideas (Athens)
17Greek Philosophers Socrates & Citizenship Socrates – critic of the Sophists, Athenian stonemason & philosopher“What is the greatest good”Socratic method – seek truth & self-knowledgeQuestioned his fellow citizens about their beliefsBelieved the unexamined life was not worth livingPlato – student of Socrates
18Greek Philosophers Plato & Reason Distrust of democracy Reason led to knowledgeRepublic – describes an ideal stateWorkers – produce the necessities of lifeSoldiers – defend the statePhilosophers - rule
19Greek Philosophers Aristotle and the Rule of Law Aristotle – Plato’s most famous studentPolitics – rulers must be subject to the lawWhat did Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle think of democracy?
20Greek Philosophers Plato Aristotle Student of Socrates Set up his own school in AthensBelieved reason led to genuine knowledgeDescribed his vision of an ideal state in The RepublicRejected Athenian democracyBelieved the state should regulate citizens’ livesAristotleWas Plato’s most famous studentTutor to Alexander the GreatFavored a constitutional government ruled by the middle classBelieved the city-state re presented the best form of human communityBelieved good conduct meant pursuing the “golden mean”Promoted reason as the guiding force for learningSet up a school for the study of all branches of knowledge
21Alexander and the Hellenistic Age Conquest of PersiaThe Legacy of AlexanderHellenistic civilization – combination of eastern and western culturesGreek, Persian, Egyptian, and IndianStoicism – Zeno, calmly accept whatever life broughtHow did the ideas of the ancient Greeks spread beyond Greece during the Hellenistic age?
22The Greek Roots of Democracy Focus Question What ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world?Direct democracyA legislative assembly of citizensJuries staffed by citizensMoral & ethical principlesEqualityRule of Law
23The Roman Republic and Empire Section 2The Roman Republic and Empire
24Chapter Focus Question How did the government of Rome develop into an empire?
25Establishing a Republic Republic – “thing of the people”How does a republic differ from a monarchy or an aristocracy of nobles?Is everyone in a republic considered equal?How did the Laws of the Twelve Tables help the plebeians?How did the tribunes serve as a check on the power of government?
26Establishing a Republic Geography & UnificationEtruscan Rule800 B.C. – Tiber RiverHerders & FarmersRome = city on the seven hillsEtruscan king
27Establishing a Republic A New Government509 BC – Etruscan monarchy endsRepublic – “thing of the people”Senate – most powerful bodyConsuls – supervised the business of government and commanded Rome’s armiesDictator – ruler who has complete control over a governmentCincinnatus
29Establishing a Republic Common People Demand EqualityPatrician – landholding upper classPlebian – common peopleLaw of the Twelve Tables, 450 BCCourse SyllabusTribunes – plebeians rights to elect their own officialsVeto – blockHow did the Roman Republic differ from government under the Etruscans?
30From Republic to Empire Roman ExpansionHow did continual warfare affect the plebeians?How did the rise of professional armies affect Rome?Some historians have said that the Roman empire really began with Julius Caesar. Do you agree?How did the Roman republic become an empire?
31From Republic to Empire Continuing ConquestCarthage – city state on the northern coast of AfricaPunic WarsSpain – EgyptMediterranean “Our Sea” or mare nostrumEconomic & Social EffectsTiberius & Gaius GracchusDistribute land to poor farmersPublic funds to feed the poor
32From Republic to Empire Julius Caesar’s Rise to PowerJulius Caesar – military commanderDictator – absolute ruler of RomeReformsPublic works to employ the joblessPublic land given to the poorCitizenshipSAVE THE REPUPLIC
34From Republic to Empire Emperor Augustus CaesarAugustus Caesar – Caesar’s grand-nephewRoman EmpireCivil service enforced the lawJobs were awarded according to talentSelf-government of cities & provincesPax RomanaRoman PeaceHow did the Roman republic become an empire?
36Roman Law Justice through the law Describe a situation in which a person receives justiceHow does the law relate to justice?Roman law developed & grew along with the republic and empireTwo SystemsCivil Law – applied only to Roman citizensLaw of Nations – laws of nature by using the human ability to reason, applied to all peopleWhat was the difference between civil law and the law of nations?
37Roman Law Key Principles Accused person presume innocent until proven guiltyAccused had the right to face the accuser and offer a defense against the chargeGuilt “clearer than daylight” through evidenceJudges – interpret the laws & make fair decisions
38Roman Law Justinian’s Code Byzantine empire Justinian – Byzantine emperor best remembered for his reform of the Roman law codeBody of Civil Law AKA: Justinian’s CodeHow did Justinian’s Code improve the state of Roman law?What lasting principles of law did Romans develop?
39Greco-Roman Civilization What is Greco-Roman civilization?Why didn’t Greco-Roman civilization disappear when the western Roman empire collapsed?Do you think Greco-Roman ideas survive today in our culture?What cultures contributed to Greco-Roman civilization?
40Greco-Roman Civilization Roman CultureGreek art, literature, philosophy, and scientific genius = height of cultural achievementGreco-Roman civilization – blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditionsPhilosophyImportance of dutyWell-being of all peoplePreserving Greco-Roman IdeasMuslim scholars
41Chapter Focus Question How did the government of Rome develop into an empire?Rome started as a city-state controlled by an aristocracy and led by a kingRomans overthrew this monarch and established a republic that expanded into neighboring landsRoman expansion created strains in Roman society that eventually led to civil wars and a powerful dictatorshipThe republic waned as powerful rulers continue to expand their realm, creating an empire
43Principles of JudaismFocus Question: What moral and ethical principles lie at the core of the Jewish religion?63 B.C. Pompey & JerusalemCapital of the independent Jewish state of JudeaPolytheistic vs. Monotheistic
44The Ancient Israelites Hebrews or Israelites (people of Israel)Torah – sacred religious textAbraham – founder of the Israelite nation2000 B.C. – MesopotamiaCanaanFamine forced migration to EgyptMoses – Israelite led the escape from Egypt
45The Ancient Israelites 1000 B.C. – Israelites est. kingdom – IsraelDavid – unites a single nationSolomon – Jerusalem, capitalPrice of ambitionHigh Taxes & Forced LaborSplit in the kingdom
46The Ancient Israelites Rulers of the IsraelitesEgyptians – enslaved the IsraelitesAssyrians (722 B.C.)Babylonians & exile586 B.C. – Nebuchadnezzar destroys the great templePersians – Cyrus frees Israelites from captivityJudea = JewsRebuild Solomon’s temple
47The Ancient Israelites What role did migration play in the history of the Israelites?Series of migrationsAbraham’s journey to CanaanFamine & migration to EgyptExodus (Moses) from EgyptBabylonian captivity
48God’s Covenant With the Israelites One God – MonotheisticBelief in one God as supremeGod’s Promise (Covenant)Protect the Israelites and provide them a homelandPeople of Israel would remain faithful and obedient to God
49God’s Covenant With the Israelites The Torah “instruction”Five Books – early account of the IsraelitesGod’s teachings – moral standardOral Torah – unwritten lawsHow did the Jews’ beliefs differ from those of other nearby peoples?MonotheisticCovenant with God to obey God’s laws
50Teachings on Law and Morality The Ten CommandmentsMount Sinai & Moses1-4 religious duties (Sabbath)Holy day for rest and worship5-10 rules for individual conduct toward other people“Honor your father and mother”
51Teachings on Law and Morality The Seven Universal LawsSet of rules that applied to all peopleBasic human rights in international law
52Teachings on Law and Morality An Ethical WorldviewResponsibility to obey God’s laws vs. freedom to make individual moral choicesProphets – spiritual leaders who interpreted God’s will and emerged to remind the Jews of their dutiesEthics – moral standards of behaviorPolitical Equality – equality before the lawDemocratic Concept – The Rule of Law
53Teachings on Law and Morality What is the source of basic moral laws that Jews must obey?Ten CommandmentsFound in the Torah’s Book of Exodus
54The Scattering of the Jews Diaspora – scattering of the Jews586 B.C. – Babylonian CaptivityLand of IsraelCenter of their culture and religionHow did the scattering of the Jewish people begin?Babylonian CaptivityNot all Jews chose to return to Judea
55Principles of JudaismFocus Question: What moral and ethical principles lie at the core of the Jewish religion?Ten CommandmentsResponsibility to obey God’s lawsEquality before the law
56The Rise of Christianity Section 4The Rise of Christianity
57The Rise of Christianity Focus QuestionHow did Christianity develop from Judaism into a powerful, independent religion?Jesus – founder of ChristianityPax Romana & Rome
58Jesus of NazarethGospel – “good news”Information about the life of JesusEarly Life4 B.C. Bethlehem (Nazareth)Mary & JosephKing David of Israel“the Son of the Most High God”Messiah – the savior sent by God to lead the Jews to freedomIf some Jews believed that Jesus was the messiah but the Jewish leaders did not, what might happen?
59Jesus of Nazareth Ministry Message of Jesus Apostles – close followers of Jesus “a person sent forth”Message of JesusGod’s love and the need for justice, morality, and helping othersEmphasized the importance of forgiveness
60Jesus of Nazareth Death & Resurrection Jesus was a threat to Roman authoritiesJesus arrested and crucifiedDisciples confused – dead or alive?Carry teachings to “all nations” and then ascended into heave
61Jesus of NazarethWhat roles did love, justice, and service play in the teachings of JesusCentral roleEmphasized God’s love and told people to love God and to “love your neighbor as yourself”Encouraged people to love their enemies
62Christianity Spreads Break from Judaism Christians – followers of Jesus ChristChrist – Greek for “the anointed one” another word for messiahPeter & RomePaul – key figure in the spread of ChristianityHelped separate Christianity from Judaism by attempting to convert non-JewsSet up many Christian churches throughout the Mediterranean
63Christianity Spreads Persecution A New Covenant New covenant helps distinguish Christianity from JudaismWritings of the New Testament went beyond observance of God’s law to focus on faith in Jesus ChristPersecutionTolerance – acceptanceRome & varied religious traditionsScapegoats for social/economic illsMartyrs
64Christianity Spreads Jesus welcomed all people Comfort found in message of loveBelief in equality & dignity of allBetter life beyond the graveChristianity spread throughout the Roman empireGreek philosophy appeals to educated RomansMissionaries & extensive system of Roman roadsWritings in Greek & Latin (understood by many people)
65Christianity Spreads Triumph, 313 A.D. Emperor Constantine and the Edict of MilanFreedom of worshipWhat factors contributed to the spread of Christianity?Jewish roots of Christianity attracted JewsEthical principles attracted common peopleMissionaries like Paul spread Jesus’ message to Jews and GentilesPaul and others incorporated Greek ideas into the religion, which appealed to educated Romans
66The Christian Church Middle Ages Christian Church most powerful force in EuropeLeaders of early Christian ChurchRole of WomenClergy – people authorized to perform religious ceremoniesPriests & BishopsPatriarchs (leading bishops) of the most important cities in the Roman empirePope
67The Christian Church Split between Eastern and Western Churches (1054) Patriarch of Rome (pope) claimed authority over the other patriarchs, who rejected his claimEastern – Orthodox ChurchWestern – Roman Catholic ChurchOnly way to avoid eternal suffering was sacramentsRoman Catholic Church gains secular power in EuropeOfficials owned large tracts of landHeld high government positions
68The Christian Church Spread of Learning Conflict between faith and reasonAristotle taught the use of reason to discover basic truthsChristians accept many ideas on faithThomas Aquinas – Christian scholarFaith and reason exist in harmony
69The Christian ChurchHow did the Christian church exert control over Europeans in the Middle Ages?Church officials owned large tracts of landServed in high government positionsChurch controlled people’s spiritual lives = absolute power over religious matters, its laws, and its system of courts
70The Judeo-Christian Tradition Shared elements of Judaism, Christianity & MuslimsHonor Abraham, Moses, and the prophetsTeach the ethical world-view developed by the IsraelitesJudeo-Christian tradition becomes influential in the westChristianity incorporated much of JudaismChristian missionaries spread Christianity throughout EuropeChristian Church became a powerful spiritual and secular forceEuropeans carried their religion with them when they settled in the AmericasJudeo-Christian & Democratic TraditionJewish and Christian Bible’s moral and ethical principles form the basis for many democratic ideals such as equality and human rights
71The Judeo-Christian Tradition Where did the principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition come from?The Bible
72The Rise of Christianity Focus QuestionHow did Christianity develop from Judaism into a powerful, independent religion?Christianity was spread by missionaries and had widespread appealChristian communities organized a structured hierarchy, which helped make the Church a powerful force
73Democratic Developments in England Section 5Democratic Developments in England
74Democratic Developments in England Focus Question:How did Parliament emerge victorious in the struggle for political power in medieval England?
75Growth of Royal PowerFeudalism – loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lordsVassals pledged service & loyaltyKnights – mounted warriorsPeasants/Serfs – lowestMeans of protection & controlKing – greatest lord
76Growth of Royal PowerKingVassalKnightsPeasantSerf
77Growth of Royal Power Monarchs – equal power of Nobles & Church Nobles & Church – courts, taxes, & armiesGuarded their rights & privilegesResisted effort by monarchs to increase royal authority
78Growth of Royal Power Battle of Hastings, 1066 William the Conqueror William vs. HaroldWilliam the ConquerorRequired every vassal to swear first allegiance to himBuilt an efficient tax-collecting systemComplete census, 1086Increased royal wealth & authority
79Growth of Royal Power Henry II, 1154 Broadened the system of royal justiceExpand customs into lawCommon Law – a legal system based on custom and court rulingsApplied to all of EnglandJury – “sworn to oath”Grand jury vs. Trial jury
80Growth of Royal PowerWhat new practices did strong monarchs introduce in England?William the Conqueror required vassals to be loyal to him & he introduced a census for tax purposesHenry II set up a justice system that came to rely on common law & juries
81Evolving Traditions of Government King JohnOppressive taxes and abuses of powerThe Magna CartaDocument that affirms the nobles’ feudal rights and some rights of townspeople and the Church
82Evolving Traditions of Government The Magna Carta, cont.Limit on King’s powerListed rights that the king had to respectDeclared that the king had to consult with Great Council of lords and clergy before raising taxesCornerstone of democratic traditionAsserted that people had rightsMonarch must obey the law
83Evolving Traditions of Government Magna Carta makes rule of law a key principle of governmentGreat Council evolves into ParliamentParliament wins the right to approve new taxes, which limits the power of the monarch
84Evolving Traditions of Government Development of ParliamentGreat Council = ParliamentHouse of Lords – Nobles & ClergyHouse of Commons – Middle-classParliament Gains Strength“Power of the Purse”How did the English Parliament limit the power of the monarch?
85Triumph of Parliament Parliament revolts against Charles I James I = absolute monarchCharles I, son of JamesPetition of RightLong Parliament,The Royal ChallengeAbsolute Monarch – a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people he or she governs
86Triumph of Parliament The English Civil War, 1642-1649 Oliver Cromwell – leader of the army that fought against Charles ICromwell’s army defeats the king’s troops in the English Civil War
87Triumph of Parliament The Commonwealth The House of Commons abolishes the monarchy, and Parliament declares England a republic, known as the CommonwealthFrom Restoration to Glorious RevolutionCreated a limited monarchy
88Triumph of Parliament English Bill of Rights Did not create a democracy, established a limited monarchyConstitution or legislative body limits the monarch’s powersParliament and the monarch governed in a partnership
89Triumph of ParliamentContribution to the development of democratic traditionRestated traditional rights of English citizensHabeas Corpus – no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crimePrinciple that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
90Triumph of ParliamentWhat principles did the English Bill of Rights establish?Ensured superiority of ParliamentRequired the monarch to summon Parliament regularlyHouse of Commons “power of the purse”Prohibited the monarch from interfering in parliamentary debates or suspending lawsBarred Roman Catholic monarchsAbolished excessive fines and cruel or unjust punishmentAffirmed the principle of habeas corpus
91Democratic Developments in England How did Parliament emerge victorious in the struggle for political power in medieval England?Magna CartaPower of the PursePetition of RightsEnglish Bill of Rights
92Chapter 1 Focus Question What are the main historical sources of the democratic tradition?