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Sources of the Democratic Tradition 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1689

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1 Sources of the Democratic Tradition 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1689
Chapter 1 Sources of the Democratic Tradition 2000 B.C.-A.D. 1689

2 Standards Preview 10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.

3 Chapter Focus Question
What are the main historical sources of the democratic tradition?

4 The Greek Roots of Democracy
Section 1 The Greek Roots of Democracy

5 Focus Question What ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world?

6 The Rise of Greek City-States
Geography & Power City-state – political unit made up of a city and the surrounding lands Importance of city-states Geographical features Governing the City-States, B.C. Monarchy – king or queen exercise central power Aristocracy – small ruling noble landowners Changes in warfare

7 The Rise of Greek City-States Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers
Sparta – military state Monarchy 2 kings, council of elders, assembly of citizens, five ephors Citizenship – native born Spartan men over age 30 State-owned slaves System of strict control over people’s lives Emphasis on military virtues and discipline, fitness and health Beginning of military training for boys at age 8 Prohibition against trade, travel, or mixing with other city-states Scornful of wealth Women expected to obey men; allowed to own property

8 The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: A Limited Democracy
Athens – development of democracy Glorification of individual Movement toward Democracy (government by the people); limited citizenship; rise of tyrants Wealth and power of aristocracy Participation in government by male citizens Slaves with no political rights or personal freedom Military training and broad education for boys Trade with other city-states Limited rights for women

9 The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: Rulers & Philosophers
Solon – reformed Athens to ensure greater fairness & justice, 594 B.C. Opened offices to more citizens Gave Athenian assembly more say in decisions Tyrants – leaders who gain power by force Pisistratus, 546 B.C. Seized power by force Gave farmers and poor citizens a greater voice Weakened the aristocracy

10 The Rise of Greek City-States Athens: Rulers & Philosophers
Tyrants (cont) Cleisthenes & Legislature (lawmaking body) Broadened the role of ordinary citizens in government Set up the Council of 500 Made the assembly a genuine legislature

11 The Rise of Greek City-States
What process took city-states from monarch to aristocracy and, in Athens, to democracy? Defenders of the king (noble landowners) gradually took power for themselves (aristocracy) Military changes increased the power of the middle class (Iron weapons replaced bronze) Athens – leaders gave ordinary citizens control over government

12 The Persian Wars 500 B.C. – Athens is “Top Dog” Persians, Asia Minor
490 B.C. – Battle of Marathon Use of geography 480 B.C. – Battle of Thermopylae How did the Greeks meet the threat of invasion by the Persians?

13 Athens in the Age of Pericles
Pericles, Athenian Statesman Led a thriving economy and more democratic government Believed all male citizens – regardless of wealth or social class – should take part in government Stressed the rights and duties of individuals as citizens of a democracy Expressed the earliest and greatest democratic ideals in his Funeral Oration

14 Athens in the Age of Pericles
Political Life Direct Democracy Jury – a panel of citizens who have the authority to make the final judgment in a trial The Funeral Oration Power rested in the hands “not of a minority but of the whole people” Rights & duties of the individual

15 Athens in the Age of Pericles
Economic & Cultural Life Rebuild what the Persians had destroyed Create jobs Honor gods with temples & festivals The Peloponnesian War Sparta vs. Athens (27 years) What progress did the Greeks under Pericles make toward democratic government?

16 Greek Philosophers Philosophers = lovers of wisdom
Moral & Ethical Principles Idea of goodness Standards of human behavior Sophists – questioned accepted ideas (Athens)

17 Greek Philosophers Socrates & Citizenship
Socrates – critic of the Sophists, Athenian stonemason & philosopher “What is the greatest good” Socratic method – seek truth & self-knowledge Questioned his fellow citizens about their beliefs Believed the unexamined life was not worth living Plato – student of Socrates

18 Greek Philosophers Plato & Reason Distrust of democracy
Reason led to knowledge Republic – describes an ideal state Workers – produce the necessities of life Soldiers – defend the state Philosophers - rule

19 Greek Philosophers Aristotle and the Rule of Law
Aristotle – Plato’s most famous student Politics – rulers must be subject to the law What did Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle think of democracy?

20 Greek Philosophers Plato Aristotle Student of Socrates
Set up his own school in Athens Believed reason led to genuine knowledge Described his vision of an ideal state in The Republic Rejected Athenian democracy Believed the state should regulate citizens’ lives Aristotle Was Plato’s most famous student Tutor to Alexander the Great Favored a constitutional government ruled by the middle class Believed the city-state re presented the best form of human community Believed good conduct meant pursuing the “golden mean” Promoted reason as the guiding force for learning Set up a school for the study of all branches of knowledge

21 Alexander and the Hellenistic Age
Conquest of Persia The Legacy of Alexander Hellenistic civilization – combination of eastern and western cultures Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian Stoicism – Zeno, calmly accept whatever life brought How did the ideas of the ancient Greeks spread beyond Greece during the Hellenistic age?

22 The Greek Roots of Democracy Focus Question
What ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world? Direct democracy A legislative assembly of citizens Juries staffed by citizens Moral & ethical principles Equality Rule of Law

23 The Roman Republic and Empire
Section 2 The Roman Republic and Empire

24 Chapter Focus Question
How did the government of Rome develop into an empire?

25 Establishing a Republic
Republic – “thing of the people” How does a republic differ from a monarchy or an aristocracy of nobles? Is everyone in a republic considered equal? How did the Laws of the Twelve Tables help the plebeians? How did the tribunes serve as a check on the power of government?

26 Establishing a Republic
Geography & Unification Etruscan Rule 800 B.C. – Tiber River Herders & Farmers Rome = city on the seven hills Etruscan king

27 Establishing a Republic
A New Government 509 BC – Etruscan monarchy ends Republic – “thing of the people” Senate – most powerful body Consuls – supervised the business of government and commanded Rome’s armies Dictator – ruler who has complete control over a government Cincinnatus

28 Roman Senate

29 Establishing a Republic
Common People Demand Equality Patrician – landholding upper class Plebian – common people Law of the Twelve Tables, 450 BC Course Syllabus Tribunes – plebeians rights to elect their own officials Veto – block How did the Roman Republic differ from government under the Etruscans?

30 From Republic to Empire
Roman Expansion How did continual warfare affect the plebeians? How did the rise of professional armies affect Rome? Some historians have said that the Roman empire really began with Julius Caesar. Do you agree? How did the Roman republic become an empire?

31 From Republic to Empire
Continuing Conquest Carthage – city state on the northern coast of Africa Punic Wars Spain – Egypt Mediterranean “Our Sea” or mare nostrum Economic & Social Effects Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus Distribute land to poor farmers Public funds to feed the poor

32 From Republic to Empire
Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power Julius Caesar – military commander Dictator – absolute ruler of Rome Reforms Public works to employ the jobless Public land given to the poor Citizenship SAVE THE REPUPLIC

33 From Republic to Empire

34 From Republic to Empire
Emperor Augustus Caesar Augustus Caesar – Caesar’s grand-nephew Roman Empire Civil service enforced the law Jobs were awarded according to talent Self-government of cities & provinces Pax Romana Roman Peace How did the Roman republic become an empire?

35 From Republic to Empire

36 Roman Law Justice through the law
Describe a situation in which a person receives justice How does the law relate to justice? Roman law developed & grew along with the republic and empire Two Systems Civil Law – applied only to Roman citizens Law of Nations – laws of nature by using the human ability to reason, applied to all people What was the difference between civil law and the law of nations?

37 Roman Law Key Principles
Accused person presume innocent until proven guilty Accused had the right to face the accuser and offer a defense against the charge Guilt “clearer than daylight” through evidence Judges – interpret the laws & make fair decisions

38 Roman Law Justinian’s Code Byzantine empire
Justinian – Byzantine emperor best remembered for his reform of the Roman law code Body of Civil Law AKA: Justinian’s Code How did Justinian’s Code improve the state of Roman law? What lasting principles of law did Romans develop?

39 Greco-Roman Civilization
What is Greco-Roman civilization? Why didn’t Greco-Roman civilization disappear when the western Roman empire collapsed? Do you think Greco-Roman ideas survive today in our culture? What cultures contributed to Greco-Roman civilization?

40 Greco-Roman Civilization
Roman Culture Greek art, literature, philosophy, and scientific genius = height of cultural achievement Greco-Roman civilization – blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman traditions Philosophy Importance of duty Well-being of all people Preserving Greco-Roman Ideas Muslim scholars

41 Chapter Focus Question
How did the government of Rome develop into an empire? Rome started as a city-state controlled by an aristocracy and led by a king Romans overthrew this monarch and established a republic that expanded into neighboring lands Roman expansion created strains in Roman society that eventually led to civil wars and a powerful dictatorship The republic waned as powerful rulers continue to expand their realm, creating an empire

42 Section 3 Principles of Judaism

43 Principles of Judaism Focus Question: What moral and ethical principles lie at the core of the Jewish religion? 63 B.C. Pompey & Jerusalem Capital of the independent Jewish state of Judea Polytheistic vs. Monotheistic

44 The Ancient Israelites
Hebrews or Israelites (people of Israel) Torah – sacred religious text Abraham – founder of the Israelite nation 2000 B.C. – Mesopotamia Canaan Famine forced migration to Egypt Moses – Israelite led the escape from Egypt

45 The Ancient Israelites
1000 B.C. – Israelites est. kingdom – Israel David – unites a single nation Solomon – Jerusalem, capital Price of ambition High Taxes & Forced Labor Split in the kingdom

46 The Ancient Israelites
Rulers of the Israelites Egyptians – enslaved the Israelites Assyrians (722 B.C.) Babylonians & exile 586 B.C. – Nebuchadnezzar destroys the great temple Persians – Cyrus frees Israelites from captivity Judea = Jews Rebuild Solomon’s temple

47 The Ancient Israelites
What role did migration play in the history of the Israelites? Series of migrations Abraham’s journey to Canaan Famine & migration to Egypt Exodus (Moses) from Egypt Babylonian captivity

48 God’s Covenant With the Israelites
One God – Monotheistic Belief in one God as supreme God’s Promise (Covenant) Protect the Israelites and provide them a homeland People of Israel would remain faithful and obedient to God

49 God’s Covenant With the Israelites
The Torah “instruction” Five Books – early account of the Israelites God’s teachings – moral standard Oral Torah – unwritten laws How did the Jews’ beliefs differ from those of other nearby peoples? Monotheistic Covenant with God to obey God’s laws

50 Teachings on Law and Morality
The Ten Commandments Mount Sinai & Moses 1-4 religious duties (Sabbath) Holy day for rest and worship 5-10 rules for individual conduct toward other people “Honor your father and mother”

51 Teachings on Law and Morality
The Seven Universal Laws Set of rules that applied to all people Basic human rights in international law

52 Teachings on Law and Morality
An Ethical Worldview Responsibility to obey God’s laws vs. freedom to make individual moral choices Prophets – spiritual leaders who interpreted God’s will and emerged to remind the Jews of their duties Ethics – moral standards of behavior Political Equality – equality before the law Democratic Concept – The Rule of Law

53 Teachings on Law and Morality
What is the source of basic moral laws that Jews must obey? Ten Commandments Found in the Torah’s Book of Exodus

54 The Scattering of the Jews
Diaspora – scattering of the Jews 586 B.C. – Babylonian Captivity Land of Israel Center of their culture and religion How did the scattering of the Jewish people begin? Babylonian Captivity Not all Jews chose to return to Judea

55 Principles of Judaism Focus Question: What moral and ethical principles lie at the core of the Jewish religion? Ten Commandments Responsibility to obey God’s laws Equality before the law

56 The Rise of Christianity
Section 4 The Rise of Christianity

57 The Rise of Christianity
Focus Question How did Christianity develop from Judaism into a powerful, independent religion? Jesus – founder of Christianity Pax Romana & Rome

58 Jesus of Nazareth Gospel – “good news” Information about the life of Jesus Early Life 4 B.C. Bethlehem (Nazareth) Mary & Joseph King David of Israel “the Son of the Most High God” Messiah – the savior sent by God to lead the Jews to freedom If some Jews believed that Jesus was the messiah but the Jewish leaders did not, what might happen?

59 Jesus of Nazareth Ministry Message of Jesus
Apostles – close followers of Jesus “a person sent forth” Message of Jesus God’s love and the need for justice, morality, and helping others Emphasized the importance of forgiveness

60 Jesus of Nazareth Death & Resurrection
Jesus was a threat to Roman authorities Jesus arrested and crucified Disciples confused – dead or alive? Carry teachings to “all nations” and then ascended into heave

61 Jesus of Nazareth What roles did love, justice, and service play in the teachings of Jesus Central role Emphasized God’s love and told people to love God and to “love your neighbor as yourself” Encouraged people to love their enemies

62 Christianity Spreads Break from Judaism
Christians – followers of Jesus Christ Christ – Greek for “the anointed one” another word for messiah Peter & Rome Paul – key figure in the spread of Christianity Helped separate Christianity from Judaism by attempting to convert non-Jews Set up many Christian churches throughout the Mediterranean

63 Christianity Spreads Persecution A New Covenant
New covenant helps distinguish Christianity from Judaism Writings of the New Testament went beyond observance of God’s law to focus on faith in Jesus Christ Persecution Tolerance – acceptance Rome & varied religious traditions Scapegoats for social/economic ills Martyrs

64 Christianity Spreads Jesus welcomed all people
Comfort found in message of love Belief in equality & dignity of all Better life beyond the grave Christianity spread throughout the Roman empire Greek philosophy appeals to educated Romans Missionaries & extensive system of Roman roads Writings in Greek & Latin (understood by many people)

65 Christianity Spreads Triumph, 313 A.D.
Emperor Constantine and the Edict of Milan Freedom of worship What factors contributed to the spread of Christianity? Jewish roots of Christianity attracted Jews Ethical principles attracted common people Missionaries like Paul spread Jesus’ message to Jews and Gentiles Paul and others incorporated Greek ideas into the religion, which appealed to educated Romans

66 The Christian Church Middle Ages
Christian Church most powerful force in Europe Leaders of early Christian Church Role of Women Clergy – people authorized to perform religious ceremonies Priests & Bishops Patriarchs (leading bishops) of the most important cities in the Roman empire Pope

67 The Christian Church Split between Eastern and Western Churches (1054)
Patriarch of Rome (pope) claimed authority over the other patriarchs, who rejected his claim Eastern – Orthodox Church Western – Roman Catholic Church Only way to avoid eternal suffering was sacraments Roman Catholic Church gains secular power in Europe Officials owned large tracts of land Held high government positions

68 The Christian Church Spread of Learning
Conflict between faith and reason Aristotle taught the use of reason to discover basic truths Christians accept many ideas on faith Thomas Aquinas – Christian scholar Faith and reason exist in harmony

69 The Christian Church How did the Christian church exert control over Europeans in the Middle Ages? Church officials owned large tracts of land Served in high government positions Church controlled people’s spiritual lives = absolute power over religious matters, its laws, and its system of courts

70 The Judeo-Christian Tradition
Shared elements of Judaism, Christianity & Muslims Honor Abraham, Moses, and the prophets Teach the ethical world-view developed by the Israelites Judeo-Christian tradition becomes influential in the west Christianity incorporated much of Judaism Christian missionaries spread Christianity throughout Europe Christian Church became a powerful spiritual and secular force Europeans carried their religion with them when they settled in the Americas Judeo-Christian & Democratic Tradition Jewish and Christian Bible’s moral and ethical principles form the basis for many democratic ideals such as equality and human rights

71 The Judeo-Christian Tradition
Where did the principles of the Judeo-Christian tradition come from? The Bible

72 The Rise of Christianity
Focus Question How did Christianity develop from Judaism into a powerful, independent religion? Christianity was spread by missionaries and had widespread appeal Christian communities organized a structured hierarchy, which helped make the Church a powerful force

73 Democratic Developments in England
Section 5 Democratic Developments in England

74 Democratic Developments in England
Focus Question: How did Parliament emerge victorious in the struggle for political power in medieval England?

75 Growth of Royal Power Feudalism – loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords Vassals pledged service & loyalty Knights – mounted warriors Peasants/Serfs – lowest Means of protection & control King – greatest lord

76 Growth of Royal Power King Vassal Knights Peasant Serf

77 Growth of Royal Power Monarchs – equal power of Nobles & Church
Nobles & Church – courts, taxes, & armies Guarded their rights & privileges Resisted effort by monarchs to increase royal authority

78 Growth of Royal Power Battle of Hastings, 1066 William the Conqueror
William vs. Harold William the Conqueror Required every vassal to swear first allegiance to him Built an efficient tax-collecting system Complete census, 1086 Increased royal wealth & authority

79 Growth of Royal Power Henry II, 1154
Broadened the system of royal justice Expand customs into law Common Law – a legal system based on custom and court rulings Applied to all of England Jury – “sworn to oath” Grand jury vs. Trial jury

80 Growth of Royal Power What new practices did strong monarchs introduce in England? William the Conqueror required vassals to be loyal to him & he introduced a census for tax purposes Henry II set up a justice system that came to rely on common law & juries

81 Evolving Traditions of Government
King John Oppressive taxes and abuses of power The Magna Carta Document that affirms the nobles’ feudal rights and some rights of townspeople and the Church

82 Evolving Traditions of Government
The Magna Carta, cont. Limit on King’s power Listed rights that the king had to respect Declared that the king had to consult with Great Council of lords and clergy before raising taxes Cornerstone of democratic tradition Asserted that people had rights Monarch must obey the law

83 Evolving Traditions of Government
Magna Carta makes rule of law a key principle of government Great Council evolves into Parliament Parliament wins the right to approve new taxes, which limits the power of the monarch

84 Evolving Traditions of Government
Development of Parliament Great Council = Parliament House of Lords – Nobles & Clergy House of Commons – Middle-class Parliament Gains Strength “Power of the Purse” How did the English Parliament limit the power of the monarch?

85 Triumph of Parliament Parliament revolts against Charles I
James I = absolute monarch Charles I, son of James Petition of Right Long Parliament, The Royal Challenge Absolute Monarch – a ruler with complete authority over the government and the lives of the people he or she governs

86 Triumph of Parliament The English Civil War, 1642-1649
Oliver Cromwell – leader of the army that fought against Charles I Cromwell’s army defeats the king’s troops in the English Civil War

87 Triumph of Parliament The Commonwealth
The House of Commons abolishes the monarchy, and Parliament declares England a republic, known as the Commonwealth From Restoration to Glorious Revolution Created a limited monarchy

88 Triumph of Parliament English Bill of Rights
Did not create a democracy, established a limited monarchy Constitution or legislative body limits the monarch’s powers Parliament and the monarch governed in a partnership

89 Triumph of Parliament Contribution to the development of democratic tradition Restated traditional rights of English citizens Habeas Corpus – no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime Principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

90 Triumph of Parliament What principles did the English Bill of Rights establish? Ensured superiority of Parliament Required the monarch to summon Parliament regularly House of Commons “power of the purse” Prohibited the monarch from interfering in parliamentary debates or suspending laws Barred Roman Catholic monarchs Abolished excessive fines and cruel or unjust punishment Affirmed the principle of habeas corpus

91 Democratic Developments in England
How did Parliament emerge victorious in the struggle for political power in medieval England? Magna Carta Power of the Purse Petition of Rights English Bill of Rights

92 Chapter 1 Focus Question
What are the main historical sources of the democratic tradition?

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