1 Psychological Theories which Impact on Service Provision in Residential Care Milgram (& Hoffling) - ObedienceAsch – ConformitySeligman – Learned HelplessnessFestinger – Attitude ChangeGoffman – InstitutionalisationZimbardo - Deindividuation
2 Milgram - ObedienceMilgram performed an experiment to see whether people obey others.He told people to administer life-threatening electric shocks to another person, simply because a man in a white coat told them to.He thought that only 1 tenth of 1% would administer the shocks, but found that over 50% did!Who might obey in residential care?Click here to see Derren Brown re-creating the experiment.People giving medication because doctors have told them to: Hoffling.Carers performing bad practice and breaking health and safety because the people in management tell them to. Etc.Derren brown – 26 mins 20 – 36 minutes.Does Obedience explain the gas chambers at Auswich.?
3 Asch - ConformityAsche performed experiments to see whether people would conform to the group norm, even though they knew what they were saying was wrong.He found that in most cases people did conform.Who might conform in residential care?Click here to see the experimentResidents – go along with what others want, or what the carers want.Carers – conform to giving the wrong treatment because everyone else does.What about the situation at the Haut de la Garenne in St Martin care home for children. People must have known that the wrong treatment was being given, but were they conforming to the social norm?Haut de la Garenne in St Martin
4 Seligman – Learned Helplessness If people don’t feel they have any control or power they tend to ‘give up’ and feel depressed.They even stop doing things they are capable of and start relying on others to do things for themWhen might learned helplessness happen in residential care?If someone is receiving poor treatment, but there is no policy in place for complaints, they don’t have a voice and they don’t have anyone to complain to.If there is a complaints procedure they might complain, but if it is not followed proplery and they have no one to ehlep them, and nothing changes thenthey mght get depressed and experinece learned helplessness.If they complain, the procuedure is followed but then dnothing changes, they might feel ‘what is the point’ and so get drepressed.If they are someone where everything is done for them then they might learn helplessness. Things might not be done in the way they want, eg different washing powder, but they are not allowed to do it for themselves, so then they stop doing thing which help them to be independent, like making their own bed or brushing their teeth.Amanda often says that when people enter hospital for what ever reason, within hours they start saying things like ‘nurse, can you pass me my water’ when really, they are quite capable of it themselves.“Nurse, would you pass me my water?”
5 Festinger – Attitude Change By now you should know the theory of Cognitive Dissonance, click here if you don’t!When might cognitive dissonance happen in residential care?I don’t agree with this treatment“Give the patient this treatment”The doctor has cogntive dissonance because they don’t agree with the treatment. They could stop cognitive dissoance by going into denial – giving the treatment anyway and not considering they don’t agree with it. They could add information to justify it, like, it’s a cheap treatment and the organsiation will benefit.Obedience could come in here and they could say ‘well, iws told by people in authority to give the treatment’ so therefore I will give it. Milgram.
6 Goffman – Institutionalisation Read AP08 & AP10Broadly speaking, Institutionalisation occurs when people sleep, play and work within the confines of an institution.Even if they don’t at first like the institution, they come to RELY on the rules and regulations until in the end they are afraid to leave.They are completely institutionalised.
7 Quote from ‘The ShawShank Redemption’ by Stephen King: RED: Heywood, enough. Ain't nothing wrong with Brooksie. He's just institutionalized, that's all.HEYWOOD: Institutionalized, my ass.RED: Man's been here fifty years. This place is all he knows. In here, he's an important man, an educated man. A librarian. Out there, he's nothing but a used-up old con with arthritis in both hands. Couldn't even get a library card if he applied. You see what I'm saying?FLOYD: Red, I do believe you're talking out of your ass.RED: Believe what you want. These walls are funny. First you hate 'em, then you get used to 'em. After long enough, you get so you depend on 'em. That's "institutionalized."JIGGER: Shit. I could never get that way.ERNIE: Say that when you been inside as long as Brooks has.
8 Zimbardo - Deindividuation Read AP12Deindividuation is a theory of ‘devolved responsibility’. This means that people don’t take full responsibility for their actions.It is usually happens when people are dressed the same (eg in uniform).It usually explains negative behaviour, eg police brutality, but can also explain caring behaviours, eg when medical staff put their uniform and put their ‘caring head’ on.When might deindividuation happen in residential care, both positively and negatively?An example of police brutality