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Electric Charge and Electric Force. What is an Electric Charge? Protons have positive (+) electric charge Electrons have negative (-) electric charge.

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Presentation on theme: "Electric Charge and Electric Force. What is an Electric Charge? Protons have positive (+) electric charge Electrons have negative (-) electric charge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electric Charge and Electric Force

2 What is an Electric Charge? Protons have positive (+) electric charge Electrons have negative (-) electric charge.

3 What is an Electric Charge? Atoms become charged by gaining or losing electrons. Static electricity —the accumulation of excess electric charges on an object.

4 Calculating Charge Electric charge was quantified by Robert Millikan in Battery On Atomizer - charge

5 Millikan discovered that all the oil droplets had a charge of 1.60 x Coulombs (C) or multiples of this charge. Electron = x C Proton = x C Neutron = 0 C Calculating Charge

6 Charged Objects Electrically charged objects obey the following rules: - Law of conservation of charge- charges may be transferred, but they cannot be created or destroyed. –Opposite charges attract, and like charges repel

7 Charged objects How are these charges able to move towards or away from each other?How are these charges able to move towards or away from each other? Electrical force: force that is exerted by + and – charges on one another. Like gravity, electrical force is a “field force” – force without physical contactLike gravity, electrical force is a “field force” – force without physical contact Objects placed close together will experience a greater force – Coulomb’s LawObjects placed close together will experience a greater force – Coulomb’s Law

8 Charged objects Coulomb’s Law F electric = K c [(q 1 q 2 )/r²] Kc = Coulomb constant = 8.99 x 10 9 N m²/C² q = charge r = distance between the two charges

9 Transferring Electric Charge Charging by contact –The process of transferring charge by touching or rubbing Example: static electricity from your feet rubbing the carpet –Works best on non-conductive materials.

10 Transferring Electric Charge Charging by induction –The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object. Occurs in conductors! Charged Object Conductor

11 Transferring Electric Charge Charging by Polarization –Same concept as induction, but in insulators! –The rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object Charged Object ---- Insulator = + = - = neutral

12 Transferring Electric Charge Static discharge –A transfer of charge through the air between two objects because of a buildup of static electricity. Example: lightning Grounding—using a conductor to direct an electric charge into the ground.


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