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Intercultural Communication Gender Discourse Sexuality Discourse.

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1 Intercultural Communication Gender Discourse Sexuality Discourse

2 Task  I find it easier to communicate with men/women.  The problem I have in communicating with men/women is that they tend to…

3 Task  If you are a man, write down in rank order the ten most desirable attributes of a woman  If you are a woman, write down in rank order the ten most desirable attributes of a man.

4 Personal Ads  28 SWM, 6’1”, 160 lbs. Handsome, artistic, ambitious, seeks attractive WF, 24-29, for friendship, romance, and permanent partnership.  Very attractive, independent SWF, 29, 5’6” 110 lbs., love fine dining, the theater, gardening and quite evenings at home. In search of handsome SWM 28-34 with similar interests.

5 Personal Ads  Gujarati Vaishnav parents invite correspondence from never married Gujarati well settled, preferably green card holder from respectable family for green card holder daughter 29 years, 5’4”, good looking, doing CPA.  Gujarati Brahmin family invites correspondence from a well cultured, beautiful Gujarati girl for 29 years, 5”8”, 145 lbs. Handsome looking, well settled boy.

6 Research on Gender Discourse  Deborah Tannen –Focus on interactional sociolinguistics –‘Culture’ and socialization –Workplace communication  Deborah Cameron –Focus on issues of power in talk  Others –Talk in same/different gender groups

7 Stereotypes  ‘Women are indefinite, passive, unable to say what they want.’  ‘Men are unobservant, insensitive, uncaring’  Different interpretative frames  Explicit vs. Implicit  Different expectations  NOT men are direct/women are indirect  Different situations –Women explicit/ men implicit

8 Most significant aspect of inter-gender discourse  POWER  Patriarchal societies  Matriarchal societies  Role of power in –Ideology –Face systems –Socialization –Forms of discourse

9 Confucius  ‘Woman yields obedience to man, and helps to carry out his principles… When young she must obey her father and elder brother; when married she must obey her husband; when her husband is dead, she must obey her son… Woman’s business is simply the preparation and supplying of drink and food.’

10 Hong Kong  Polygamy was legal until 1971  Inheritance system in New Territories  Women with same educational level do not earn as much or rise to as high position as men  Men outnumber women 10:1 in administrative and managerial positions  Deviance from gender roles in girls interpreted as delinquency  ‘Genderization of Education’ (Sciences and Arts)  Capitalism/consumerism (women in advertising)  Increased violence towards women  Government responses  Equal Opportunity Ordinance

11 Who talks more  Mixed gender groups –men  Single gender groups –women

12 Dimensions of Difference  Intimacy-independence  Connection – status  Inclusive –exclusive  Relationship – information  Rapport – report  Community – contest  Problems – solutions  Novice –expert  Listening - lecturing

13 Intimacy  Relationship to background assumptions of status  Inclusion—exclusion  Individualism—collectivism

14 Rapport and Report  Information and relationship  What ‘counts’ as information  ‘good talk’  Community vs. contest  Problems—solutions  ‘troubles talk’  ‘lectures’

15 History  UDS  Inside vs. Outside work  Industrial revolution  Women and ‘moral education’  Socialization

16 Socialization  Play of girls –Small groups/ egalitarian –Best friends –Dolls –Sharing secrets  Play of boys –Large groups/ hierarchal –Leaders and followers –Guns –Doing rather than talking –Ritual insulting

17 Boys and Girls  Non-verbal behavior  Girls –Alignment towards each other –Small space –still  Boys –Alignment towards third point –Large space –Movement

18  The 4 most popular women's magazines (Home Journal, Cosmo etc.) were compared to the 4 most popular men's magazines (Popular Mechanics, Sports Illustrated etc.). The target of comparison was the number of ads for diet foods. In 48 issues of women's magazines there was a total of 63 diet food ads. The total ads for men was 1. (Silverstein, Peterson, Perdue & Kelly, 1986).

19 How Girls Learn to be ‘Girls’  Socialization  Textbooks  Media –TV –advertising

20 Textbooks

21 Images of women in advertising








29 Gender Stereotypes in Advertising  1. functional ranking — the tendency to depict men in executive roles and as more functional when collaborating with women,  2. relative size — the tendency to depict men as taller and larger than women, except when women are clearly superior in social status,  3. ritualization of subordination — an overabundance of images of women lying on floors and beds or as objects of men's mock assaults,  4. the feminine touch — the tendency to show women cradling and caressing the surface of objects with their fingers, and

30 Cultures of Sexuality What’s in a name?  Gay/lesbian  Queer  Homosexual  Tong xing lian zhe  Gei (Geilo)  Tongzhi  ( 我们这种人, 像我们 这样的 ), ‘friends like us’ ( 我们这样朋友 ) ‘us people’ ( 我们这些 人 ) PLU

31 Gays and Lesbians in Chinese Culture  Constructionist view of sexual identity  Dennis Altman Global Sex  The Chinese Tongzhi Movement  How Discourse Systems invent themselves  Boellstorff (2000) ‘dubbing culture’  Imagined Identities  Invented Identities  Chinese Tongzhi Manifesto Chinese Tongzhi Manifesto

32 History  The earliest recorded mention of homosexuality in Chinese literature is probably in the Shi Jing ( 诗经 ), a collection of poems from the early Zhou Dynasty. The oldest historical record mentioning homosexuality is the Spring and Autumn Annals ( 春秋 ) (722-479 BC). Other stories from the Spring-Autumn Period and the Warring States period make frequent reference to homosexuality in the context of palace intrigues, politics and warfare. For two centuries at the height of the Han dynasty China was ruled by ten openly bisexual emperors and annals from the Western and Eastern Chin even include accounts of intercultural homosexual relationships between Han Chinese and foreign invaders. An anonymous author of the early nineteenth century complied approximately fifty famous historical cases of same sex love into a volume entitled Records of the Cut Sleeve ( 断袖编 ) (Hinsch 1992, Liu 1993b, Ruan 1991, Samshasha 1997).

33 Changing Models for Homosexuality  Republican Period –Eugenics  Revolutionary Period –Western Decadence (Marxist Social Model) –‘Hooligan Laws’  Reform Period –Medical Model (Cures)  Contemporary Period –Social Scientific Model –Media Discussion –Sexual Revolution

34 Behavior vs. Identity The invention of the homosexual person See Foucault and others

35 Cures  According to Zha (1995:97), ‘In “hate therapy,” the patient would be asked to think of flies or the skeletons of those who had died of AIDS whenever he experienced homosexual arousal.’ Another ‘cure’ was “electric therapy,” in which ‘the doctor would show a video of men having sex and then apply an electrified probe to the patient's erect penis, so that he would associate gay sex with painful shocks.’

36 How are Chinese Gays Inventing themselves  Place in family  Place in culture  Place in ‘Global Gay Culture’  Place in the local political circumstances  Tongzhi  Multipurpose identity

37 Tongzhi  我们不喜欢用同性恋这个词。。 因为大家都认 为。。社会上认为这个词是不好  像妓女 。。 很脏 。。。年轻的人都爱说同志  We don't like to use this word 'homosexual'..because everyone thinks.. society  thinks that this word is like prostitute.. very dirty. Young people all like to say tongzhi (‘comrade’) (Fuzhou 1998-9)

38 Friends Exchange ( 朋友通信 )  Appropriating official voices to the cause of gay rights  : Disseminate Science ( 弘扬科学 ), Promote Health ( 促进 健康 ), Initiate Love ( 倡导爱心 ) and Build Civilization ( 共 建文明 )  ‘how well it deals with its homosexual question is one sign with which to measure a society’s ‘level of civilization.’ ( 如何更好地解决同性爱问题,是衡量社会性文明程度 的 )  《朋友》的心愿是吁请性爱倾向不同的人群共建文明。  the aspiration of 'Friends' is to invite groups a different sexual orientations to build civilization together  China has a 5000 year history of glorious civilization. 'Compassion', 'Desiring nothing, imposing nothing on others', and 'valuing harmony' are excellent traditions of the Chinese culture

39 Cut Sleeves  The expression ‘cut sleeves’ ( 断袖 ) comes from the story of the Han Dynasty Emperor Ai and his lover Dong Xian recorded in the Book of Han ( 汉书 ). The nineteenth century Records of the Cut Sleeve ( 断袖编 ) relates the story like this: ‘Emperor Ai was sleeping in the daytime with Dong Xian stretched out across his sleeve. When the emperor wanted to get up, Dong Xian was still asleep. Because he did not want to disturb him, the emperor cut off his own sleeve and got up. His love and thoughtfulness went this far!’ (quoted in Hinsch 1990:53, see also Liu 1993b, Ruan 1991, Samshasha 1997). Less sympathetic versions of the story, such as that in Ceng and Ren’s AIDS: The Warning of the Century ( 艾滋病 AIDS: 世纪的警告 ) ( 1997: 29) add to their telling the fact that, after the death of the emperor, Dong Xian was impeached by jealous ministers and he and his wife ended up committing suicide.

40 I am what I am  我就是而已.. 食色性也.. 孔子说的话.. 食色性也 … 爱吃什 么和性的倾向一样.. 倾向男的.. 别人倾向女的和吃的一 样.. 口味不一样而已.. 都很正常。没有什么不一样... 孔子 说的话就是这样的.  I am what I am.. ‘eating and sex are human nature’.. that’s what Confucius said….. ‘eating and sex are human nature’…liking a certain kind of food and being inclined towards a particular sex are the same.. being inclined towards men.. or others being inclined toward women is the same as eating.. just different tastes.. they're both normal.. there's no difference…that's exactly what Confucius said. (Fuzhou 1998-9)

41 Tongzhi Manifesto  3. Tradition Chinese Society was Tolerant Towards Same Sex Love  Many people mistakenly criticise Chinese culture as sexually repressive and conservative. Some even think that homosexuality is a corrupt import front the West. In fact, traditional Chinese culture was tolerant towards same sex love. Mencius says, "The joy of eating and sex are natural human desires", both of which have no association with sin or guilt. Buddhist, a religion which has been well assimilated into the Chinese culture for 2,000 years, neither advocates heterosexuality nor denounces homosexuality, and emphasises the notion of bodichitta, which means that all beings have the potential to become Buddha. The vast documentation also reveals the high level of social tolerance towards same sex love in pre-modern China. 4. The Hostility and Violence Against Homosexuality is not Found in Traditional Chinese Culture

42  Hostility and violence, such as harsh legal punishment, bashing and lynching' against same sex love in pre-modern China cannot be found in historical records. For instance, the introduction of sodomy law in Hong Kong in 1865, which could sentence two consenting male adults to life imprisonment, was the result of British colonial rule. What was brought from the West to China was not same sex love, but the sin associated with it in the Judaeo-Christian tradition, which signiticamly contributed to the homophobia found in modern Chinese societies.

43  6. Confrontational Politics in the West Should Not be Imposed Upon Chinese Societies  The les-bi-gay movement in many Western societies is largely built upon the notion of individualism, confrontational politics, and the discourse of individual rights. Certain - characteristics of confrontational politics, such as through coming out and mass protests and parades may not be the best way of achieving tongzhi liberation in the family-centred, community oriented Chinese societies which stresses the importance of social harmony. In formulating the tongzhi movement strategy, we should take the specific socio-economic and cultural environment of each society into consideration.

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