Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance? (2003) Louis Gerstner “Fixing IBM was all about execution. We had to stop looking for people to blame, stop tweaking the internal structure and systems. I wanted no excuses.”
Power and politics often have negative connotations because people associate them with attempts to use organizational resources for personal advantage and to achieve personal goals at the expense of other goals. 3
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 6 Power, formal authority, and obedience. The Milgram experiments. Designed to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure, even under the belief of life-threatening conditions. The results indicated that the majority of the experimental subjects would obey the commands of the authority figure. Raised concerns about compliance and obedience.
Zone of Indifference - the range in which attempts to influence a person will be perceived as legitimate & will be acted on without a great deal of thought Zone of Indifference Managers strive to expand the zone of indifference
Power - the ability to influence another person Influence - the process of affecting the thoughts, behavior, & feelings of another person Authority - the right to influence another person
Reward Power - agent’s ability to control the rewards that the target wants Coercive Power - agent’s ability to cause an unpleasant experience for a target Legitimate Power - agent and target agree that agent has influential rights, based on position and mutual agreement Referent Power - based on interpersonal attraction- timing matters Expert Power - agent has knowledge target needs
Commitment Reward Power Legitimate Power CoercivePower ExpertPower ReferentPower Resistance Compliance Sources of Power Consequences of Power
Expert Power! Strong relationship to performance & satisfaction Transfers vital skills, abilities, and knowledge within the organization Employees internalize what they observe & learn from managers they consider “experts”
Information Power - access to and control over important information Formal/informal position in communication network Interpreting information when passing it on
Does the behavior produce a good outcome for people both inside and outside the organization? Does the behavior respect the rights of all parties? Does the behavior treat all parties equitably and fairly?
Personal Power used for personal gain Social Power used to create motivation used to accomplish group goals
Have high need for social power Approach relationships with a communal orientation Focus on needs and interests of others belief in justicealtruism belief in the authority system preference for work & discipline
Control of critical resources Control of strategic contingencies - activities that other groups need to complete their tasks Ways groups hold power over other groups Ability to reduce uncertainty High centrality - functionality central to organization’s success Nonsubstitutability - group’s activities are difficult to replace
Organizational Power Coercive Power - influence through threat of punishment, fear, or intimidation Utilitarian Power - influence through rewards and benefits Normative Power - influence through knowledge of belonging, doing the right thing
Organizational Membership Alienative Membership - members feel hostile, negative, do not want to be there Calculative Membership - members weigh benefits and limitations of belonging Moral Membership - members have positive organizational feelings; will deny own needs
Type of Membership Type of Power AlienativeCalculativeMoral Normative Utilitarian Coercive SOURCE: Adapted from Amitai Etzioni, Modern Organizations (Upper “Saddle River, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1964), 59-61
Ability to intercede for someone in trouble Ability to get placements for favored employees Exceeding budget limitations Procuring above-average raises for employees Getting items on the agenda at meetings Access to early information Having top managers seek out their opinion
First-line Supervisors overly close supervision inflexible adherence to rules do job rather than train Staff Professionals resistance to change turf protection Top Executives budget cuts punishing behaviors top-down communications Managers assign external attribution - blame others or environment
Authority to make decisions without having to first get approval. Giving Power and Authority Away Carries Risk and Reward How does it enhance innovation and why does it work?
Organizational Politics - the use of power and influence in organizations Political Behavior - actions not officially sanctioned by an organization that are taken to influence others in order to meet one’s personal goals
How to be a Star at Work 1999 Robert E Kelley “What average performers think it is: The talent for brownnosing and schmoozing in the workplace to help me get noticed by the right people. What start performers know it to be: A work strategy that enabled me to navigate the competing interests in an organization to promote cooperation, address conflicts and get things done.”
How to win Friends and Influence People Dale Carnegie 1998 “Always make the other person feel important…and do it sincerely. Please, thank you and Would you mind?...”
A Final Word on Power and Politics- authenticity (Continued)
Recognize that power and politics influence all behavior in organizations and that it is necessary to develop the skills to be able to understand and manage them. Analyze the sources of power in the function, division, and organization in which you work to identify powerful people and the organization’s power structure. To influence organizational decision making and your chances of promotion, try to develop a personal power base to increase your visibility and individual power. Recognize that power and politics influence all behavior in organizations and that it is necessary to develop the skills to be able to understand and manage them. Analyze the sources of power in the function, division, and organization in which you work to identify powerful people and the organization’s power structure. To influence organizational decision making and your chances of promotion, try to develop a personal power base to increase your visibility and individual power. 11