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An argument that the dark matter is axions Pierre Sikivie Center for Particle Astrophysics Fermilab, March 17, 2014 Collaborators: Ozgur Erken, Heywood Tam, Qiaoli Yang Nilanjan Banik

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Outline 1.Cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. 2.The axion BEC rethermalizes sufficiently fast that axions about to fall onto a galactic halo almost all go to the lowest energy state for given total angular momentum. 3. As a result the axions produce - caustic rings of dark matter - in the galactic plane - with radii

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4.There is observational evidence for the existence of caustic rings of dark matter - in the galactic plane - with radii - with overall size consistent with tidal torque theory 5.The evidence for caustic rings is not explained if the dark matter is entirely in some other form. Ordinary cold dark matter (WIMPs, sterile neutrinos, non-rethermalizing BEC, …) forms tent-like inner caustics.

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The remaining axion window laboratory searches stellar evolution cosmology

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There are two cosmic axion populations: hot and cold. When the axion mass turns on, at QCD time,

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Axion production by vacuum realignment V a V a initial misalignment angle J. Preskill, F. Wilczek + M.Wise; L. Abbott + P.S.; M. Dine + W. Fischler 1983

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Cold axion properties number density velocity dispersion phase space density if decoupled

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Bose-Einstein Condensation if identical bosonic particles are highly condensed in phase space and their total number is conserved and they thermalize then most of them go to the lowest energy available state

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why do they do that? by yielding their energy to the non-condensed particles, the total entropy is increased. BEC preBEC

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the axions thermalize and form a BEC after a time the axion fluid obeys classical field equations, behaves like CDM the axion fluid does not obey classical field equations, does not behave like CDM

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the axion BEC rethermalizes the axion fluid obeys classical field equations, behaves like CDM the axion fluid does not obey classical field equations, does not behave like CDM

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from M.R. Andrews, C.G. Townsend, H.-J. Miesner, D.S. Durfee, D.M. Kurn and W. Ketterle, Science 275 (1997) 637.

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Axion field dynamics From self-interactions From gravitational self-interactions O. Erken et al., PRD 85 (2012) 063520

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In the “particle kinetic” regime implies When

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1 2 3 4

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D. Semikoz & I. Tkachev, PRD 55 (1997) 489D.

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After, axions thermalize in the “condensed” regime impliesfor and for self-gravity

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Toy model thermalizing in the condensed regime: with i.e.

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50 quanta among 5 states 316 251 system states Start with Number of particles Total energy Thermal averages

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Integrate Calculate Do the approach the on the predicted time scale?

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Thermalization occurs due to gravitational interactions at time PS + Q. Yang, PRL 103 (2009) 111301

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Gravitational interactions thermalize the axions and cause them to form a BEC when the photon temperature After that

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Tidal torque theory neighboring protogalaxy Stromberg 1934; Hoyle 1947; Peebles 1969, 1971

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Tidal torque theory with ordinary CDM neighboring protogalaxy the velocity field remains irrotational

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Axions rethermalize before falling onto galactic halos and go to their lowest energy state consistent with the total angular momentum they acquired from tidal torquing provided i.e. Axion fraction of dark matter is more than of order 3%.

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Tidal torque theory with axion BEC in their lowest energy available state, the axions fall in with net overall rotation

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Caustics of light at the bottom of a swimming pool on a sunny breezy day water surface light intensity position pool bottom

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x x. DM particles in phase space DM forms caustics in the non-linear regime x x x. x

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(from Binney and Tremaine’s book)

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Galactic halos have inner caustics as well as outer caustics. If the initial velocity field is dominated by net overall rotation, the inner caustic is a ‘tricusp ring’. If the initial velocity field is irrotational, the inner caustic has a ‘tent-like’ structure. (Arvind Natarajan and PS, 2005).

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simulations by Arvind Natarajan in case of net overall rotation

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The caustic ring cross-section an elliptic umbilic catastrophe D -4

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in case of irrotational flow

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On the basis of the self-similar infall model (Filmore and Goldreich, Bertschinger) with angular momentum (Tkachev, Wang + PS), the caustic rings were predicted to be in the galactic plane with radii was expected for the Milky Way halo from the effect of angular momentum on the inner rotation curve.

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Effect of a caustic ring of dark matter upon the galactic rotation curve

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Composite rotation curve (W. Kinney and PS, astro-ph/9906049) combining data on 32 well measured extended external rotation curves scaled to our own galaxy

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Inner Galactic rotation curve from Massachusetts-Stony Brook North Galactic Pane CO Survey (Clemens, 1985)

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Outer Galactic rotation curve R.P. Olling and M.R. Merrifield, MNRAS 311 (2000) 361

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Monoceros Ring of stars H. Newberg et al. 2002; B. Yanny et al., 2003; R.A. Ibata et al., 2003; H.J. Rocha-Pinto et al, 2003; J.D. Crane et al., 2003; N.F. Martin et al., 2005 in the Galactic plane at galactocentric distance appears circular, actually seen for scale height of order 1 kpc velocity dispersion of order 20 km/s may be caused by the n = 2 caustic ring of dark matter (A. Natarajan and P.S. ’07)

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Rotation curve of Andromeda Galaxy from L. Chemin, C. Carignan & T. Foster, arXiv: 0909.3846

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10 arcmin = 2.2 kpc 29.2 kpc15.4 10.3

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The caustic ring halo model assumes net overall rotation axial symmetry self-similarity L. Duffy & PS PRD78 (2008) 063508

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The specific angular momentum distribution on the turnaround sphere Is it plausible in the context of tidal torque theory?

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Tidal torque theory with ordinary CDM neighboring protogalaxy the velocity field remains irrotational

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in case of irrotational flow

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Tidal torque theory with axion BEC net overall rotation is obtained because, in the lowest energy state, all axions fall with the same angular momentum

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in case of net overall rotation

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The specific angular momentum distribution on the turnaround sphere Is it plausible in the context of tidal torque theory?

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Tidal torque theory with axion BEC net overall rotation is obtained because, in the lowest energy state, all axions fall with the same angular momentum

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Magnitude of angular momentum fits perfectly ( ) G. Efstathiou et al. 1979, 1987from caustic rings

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The specific angular momentum distribution on the turnaround sphere Is it plausible in the context of tidal torque theory?

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Self-Similarity a comoving volume

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Self-Similarity (yes!) time-independent axis of rotation provided

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Conclusion: The dark matter looks like axions at least in part

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from F. Van den Bosch, A. Burkert and R. Swaters, MNRAS 326 (2001) 1205

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Angular momentum distribution in simulated cold dark matter halos Bullock et al. 2001

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has 90% range 2.6 - 8.1 median 4.0

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from F. van den Bosch, A. Burkert and R. Swaters, MNRAS 326 (2001) 1205 Angular momentum distribution of baryons in dwarf galaxies

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The angular momentum distribution of CDM in simulations differs from that of baryons in dwarf galaxies 1) the shape is different 2) observed whereas in simulations

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Processes that allow angular momentum exchange aggravate the discrepancy rather than resolve it - Frictional forces among the baryons have the general effect of removing angular momentum from baryons that have little and transferring it to baryons that have a lot. - Dynamical friction of dark matter on clumps of baryonic matter has the general effect of transferring angular momentum from the baryons to the dark matter. -> GALACTIC ANGULAR MOMENTUM PROBLEM Navarro and Steinmetz 2000 Burkert and D'Onglia 2004

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Tidal torque theory with axion BEC net overall rotation is obtained because, in the lowest energy state, all axions fall with the same angular momentum

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Baryons and WIMPs are entrained by the axion BEC is the same condition as i.e.

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The vortices in the axion BEC are attractive and join into a big vortex The infall rate is not isotropic. N. Banik & PS, 2013

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Baryon/WIMP specific angular momentum distribution on the turnaround sphere and infall rate

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from F. van den Bosch, A. Burkert and R. Swaters, MNRAS 326 (2001) 1205 Angular momentum distribution of baryons in dwarf galaxies

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