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What are the Magic Words? To find To get To figure out To show Because Since Therefore

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Sample 5 th Grade Question Some 5 th graders competed in a field-day race. The 5 th grade results for the 50-meter race are shown in the chart. ( Standards 2.1, 2.5, 2.6)

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Sample 5 th Grade Item 8.72Donna 8.28Matt 7.86Rose 8.98José 7.68Tia 8.05Andrew Time in SecondsRunner

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Sample 5 th Grade Item List the runners from fastest to slowest. REMEMBER: the runner completing the race in the least amount of time is the winner. CALCULATE the average time for the 5 th grade. Which runner’s time was closest to the average for 5 th grade? CALCULATE by how much time this student’s time differed from the average.

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The Directions For full credit, you must do the following: 1.Show OR describe each step of your work, even if you did it in your head (“mental math”) or used a calculator 2.Write an explanation stating the mathematical reason(s) why you chose each of your steps

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Solving Open-ended Items Tips from Teachers

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Solving Tips from Teachers Show and number each step of the work – Even/especially if the work was done in the student’s head or calculator

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Tips for Solving Make 2 columns – Put “work” on the left – Put “explanation” on the right workexplanation

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The Work (a student’s response) A) 1)Fastest 1. Tia 7.68 sec 2. Rose 7.86 sec 3. Andrew 8.05 sec 4. Matt8.28 sec 5. Donna8.72 sec Slowest6. José8.98 sec

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The Work (a student’s response) 2) = sec 3) 6 = 8.26 sec (average) 4) Matt’s time 8.28 sec is the closest 5) 8.28 – 8.26 =.02 sec

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Explanation Tips Make sure ALL steps are explained in words Encourage your students NOT to use the words “to find the answer” – The words “the answer” do not explain what the answer represents

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Explanation Tips Encourage students to EXPLAIN their work - not DESCRIBE it – Description: “I divided by six which equals 8.26” – Explanation “I divided the total time by the number of runners TO FIND the average time”

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Explanation Tips Explain which operation was performed and what each number means – Start each step with “I added…” “I subtracted…” “I multiplied…”, etc – Then explain what each number represents “I divided the total time by the number of runners…

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Explanation Tips Use “magic words”* in the explanation These are words that gear students to ‘explain’ their work rather than ‘describe’ it * Article on “Magic Words” can be found in the math assessment handbook

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What are the Magic Words? To find To get To see To figure out To show To determine Because Since Therefore…….

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The Explanation (a student’s response) I ordered the runners from fastest to slowest. Tia won the race. The runners up in order were Rose, Andrew, Matt, Donna and last was José. I added all the runners’ times together TO FIND the total time.

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The Explanation (a student’s response) 3 ) I divided the total time by the number of runners TO GET the average time for 5 th grade. 4) I compared the runner’s time to the average and I see that Matt’s time was the closest to the average. 5) I subtracted the average time from Matt’s time TO FIGURE OUT how much he differed from the average.

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The Final Product work A) 1) Fastest 1. Tia 7.68 sec 2. Rose 7.86 sec 3. Andrew 8.05 sec 4. Matt 8.28 sec 5. Donna 8.72 sec Slowest 6. José 8.98 sec B) 2) = sec 3) 6 = 8.26 sec (average) 4) Matt’s time 8.28 sec is the closest 5) 8.28 – 8.26 =.02 sec explanation 1) I ordered the runners from fastest to slowest. Tia won the race. The runners up in order were Rose, Andrew, Matt, Donna and last was José. 2) I added all the runners times together TO FIND the total time. 3) I divided the total time by the number of runners TO GET the average time for 5 th grade. 4) I compared the runner’s time to the average and I see that Matt’s time was the closest to the average. 5) I subtracted the average time from Matt’s time TO FIGURE OUT how much he differed from the average time.

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Open-ended Items In Your Math Classroom

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Where to Find Open-Ended Problems Mathematics Assessment handbook & Released Items Handbook – – Click on “ K-12 Schools ” – Click on “ Assessment & Testing ” – Click on “ Assessment Handbooks ” Mathematics Instructional Rubrics (Primary thru High School) – – Click on “K-12 Schools” – Click on “Curriculum & Instruction” – Click on “Mathematics” – Click on “What’s New”

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Where to Find Open-Ended Problems Open-ended problems created at the 2002 Math Governor’s Institutes – – Click on “K-12 Schools” – Click on “Curriculum & Instruction” – Click on “Mathematics” – Click on “Professional Education” PSSA Practice Tests (5 th, 8 th & 11 th )

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Where to Find Open-Ended Items Text resource books Multi-step word problems from your textbook Teacher-made questions Internet resources

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The Importance of Mathematics Vocabulary

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Mr. Stevens bought 15 books for his store. He paid $11 for each book. He then sold all 15 books for $25 each. A. What is the difference between the total amount of money Mr. Stevens sold the books for and the total amount of money he paid for the books? Show or explain all your work.

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Part A Answer Support $210 $11 × 15 = $165 $25 × 15 = $375 $375 – $165 = $210 OR ($25 – $11) × 15 = $210 OR He paid $11 times 15 ($165) and sold the books for $25 times 15 ($375). I subtracted $375 from $165 to get $210 as the difference.

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Sample Question Four members of the Johnson family took a trip from Pittsburgh to Harrisburg, a distance of 221 miles. It took them 4 hours and 15 minutes to make the trip. The car required 13 gallons of gasoline at $1.25 per gallon. The turnpike toll was $6.50, and they spent $12.84 for food. What was the average cost per mile based on the total expenses of gas, food and tolls for this trip?

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The Work 1) $1.25 X 13 gal = $ ) $ $ $12.84 = $ ) $ mi $ ) $0.16 per mile

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Explanation Tips Encourage students to EXPLAIN their work - not DESCRIBE it Description: “I multiplied $1.25 and 13 and got $16.25” Explanation “I multiplied the price of gas per gallon and the number of gallons to get the price for the gas used.”

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The Explanation 1) I multiplied the price of gas and the number of gallons TO GET the total cost of gas. 2) I added the cost of gas, food and tolls together TO FIND the total cost of the trip. 3) I divided the total cost of the trip by the number of miles and I FOUND the cost per mile. 4) SINCE I had many decimal places, I rounded to the hundredth BECAUSE the answer was in terms of money. My answer is 16 cents per mile.

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The Final Product Work 1) $1.25 X 13 gal = $ ) $ $ $6.50 = $ ) $ mi $ ) $0.16 per mile Explanation 1) I multiplied the price of gas and the number of gallons TO GET the total cost of gas. 2) I added the cost of gas, food and tolls together TO FIND the total cost of the trip. 3) I divided the total cost of the trip by the number of miles and I FOUND the cost per mile. 4) SINCE I had many decimal places, I rounded to the hundredth BECAUSE I wanted money. My answer is 16 cents per mile.

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