2 Classification of 2 different organisms Red MapleKingdom: Plantae Phylum: Anthophyta Class: Dicotyledones Order: Sapindales Family: Aceraceae Genus: Acer Species: Acer rubrumHumanKingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primata Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: Homo sapiens
3 I. Classification A. How Classification Began 1. Classification - grouping of objects or informationbased on similarities2. Taxonomy - branch of Biology that deals with thegrouping and naming of organisms.years ago Aristotle - Greek philosopher;developed first classificationsystem - Two major groups:plants (herbs, shrubs, trees) &animals (live on land, in airor water)
4 Binomial nomenclature – 2 name naming system – 1778 Carolus Linnaeus - Swedish botanist who developed system of classification that is still used today - based on close relationships of organisms.Binomial nomenclature – 2 name naming systemGenus & speciesitalicized or underlinedGenus name is capitalized and species is lower caseEx: Homo sapiensGenus - a group of closely related speciesspecies - population of interbreeding organismscapable of producing fertile offspring
5 Why use scientific names??? Common Names usually have regional (location) differencesDolphin… dolphin fish… mahi mahi… porpoise… Huh???
7 Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names Common Names
8 Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists Scientific Name
9 Binomial Nomenclature Common NameScientific Name
10 B. Taxonomy- the study of classification Why classify?EASE OF COMMUNICATION*We need a universal system of naming organisms so that the scientists around the world know they are studying the same organism2. EASE OF IDENTIFICATION*It is a useful tool when trying to identify diseases or pathogens quickly – Ex: poisonous vs. non-poisonous mushrooms3. PROTECTING SPECIES*Provides economic/ ecological advantages when a particular species produces something useful – Ex: the Pacific Yew produces taxol which may be used in treating some forms of cancer.
11 C. How Living Things are Classified 1. Taxonomic categories - a hierarchy taxon (taxa-plural):Kingdom,Phylum,Class,Order,Family,Genus ,speciesTaxon- group or level into which organisms are classifiedKing Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda
12 II. The six Kingdoms EX: E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus Kingdom Eubacteria - True bacteria - prokaryotic (no nucleus or organelles), unicellular decomposers or photosyntheticEX: E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus
13 B. Kingdom Archaebacteria - Prokaryotes, unicellular, microscopic, thrive in extreme environments like salt, lakes, swamps & hot springs. Thought to most closely resemble first life on Earth! Ex: Methanogens, extreme halophilesBacteria Of Boiling Hot SpringsIn Yellowstone National ParkBlack Smokers on ocean floor
14 C. Kingdom Protista - unicellular and multi-cellular organisms that are either plant-like, animal-like or fungus-like. Eukaryotic and usually live in moist environments.Red AlgaeAmoebaRadiolarianParameciumDiatomGiant Kelps
15 D. Kingdom Fungi - Mostly multicellular (yeast are unicellular), heterotrophic, chitinous cell walls, eukaryotic, absorbs nutrients obtained by decomposing dead organisms or waste/ detritus (detritivores/ saprobes). Once classified with Plantae.MushroomsYeastBracket Fungi
16 E. Kingdom Plantae - eukaryotic with cell walls of cellulose, multicellular, stationary, autotrophic, producers
17 F. Kingdom Animalia - Multicellular heterotrophs, eukaryotic, no cell walls, and most with highly organized tissue and organ systems.
19 Kingdoms of Life Activity Use your notes and textbook to complete the Kingdoms of Life Chart (10 minutes)Finish the WS for HW
20 Autotroph or heterotroph Cell Structures Cell walls with peptidoglycan Domain: BacteriaDomain: ArchaeaKingdomEubacteriaArchaebacteriaMode of NutritionAutotroph or heterotrophCell StructuresCell walls with peptidoglycanCell walls w/o peptidoglycan
21 Domain: Eukarya PROTISTA FUNGI PLANTAE ANIMALIA Autotroph or heterotrophHeterotrophAutotrophSome have Cell walls of cellulose, some have CW of silicaCell walls of chitinCell walls of celluloseNo cell walls
23 How Are Relationships Determined? 1. By Evolutionary History (classification) 2. By Development 3. By Biochemistry 4. By Behavior 5. Cladistic Analysis
24 D. How Are Relationships Determined? 1. By evolutionary history (classification) - common ancestors, studying modern day life-forms and comparing them with fossils (ancestors)*Phylogeny - The evolutionary relationship of a species2. By development - examining the development stages of animals for similarities to determine their relationships and phylogeny*Ontogeny – the origin and development of a species3. By Biochemistry - examining composition in DNA & proteins, more sequences in common mean more closely related. DNA analysis is studying “Molecular Clock”4. By Behavior - noting similarities in behavioral patterns5. Cladistic Analysis- classifying based of derived characters (appear in recent lineages)*Cladogram AKA Phylogenetic Tree
28 It can be helpful to assign letters or symbols to the derived characters in order to draw a clear cladogram
29 The Great Clade RaceEach runner in the race starts at the same point (the starting line)The course works its way through a forest to the other side (runners can choose different pathways)Each runner has a card that they get stamped at different checkpoints throughout the course (runners will only have the same stamp if they went through the same checkpoint)You will be able to determine the layout of the course and which path each runner took by looking at the stamps that each runner received
30 Whiteboard assignment Draw the course &LabelThe checkpointsWhere the runners left the forestQuestions to think aboutThink about the Great Clade Race as an analogy for evolutionWhat do each of the following represent:RunnersCheckpointsThe Race Course
31 Discussion QuestionsDescribe the analogy between evolution and this activity.RunnersCheckpointsThe Race CourseCould you tell which path went left or right?Could you tell how long each segment was?In the biological case, why are organisms on different paths?What do the forks in the road mean?Can organisms lose stamps in nature?