Presentation on theme: "Literary Archetypes “Archetypes are repeated patterns that recur in the literature of every age” (Sloan 48)."— Presentation transcript:
1 Literary Archetypes“Archetypes are repeated patterns that recur in the literature of every age” (Sloan 48).
2 What is an archetype?An archetype is a term used to describe universal symbols that evoke deep and sometimes unconscious responses in a readerIn literature, characters, images, and themes that symbolically embody universal meanings and basic human experiences, regardless of when or where they live, are considered archetypes.Common literary archetypes include stories of quests, initiations, scapegoats, descents to the underworld, and ascents to heaven.
3 Archetypes are…Primordial: That is, we, as individuals, have these archetypal images ingrained in our understanding even before we are born.Universal: These archetypes can be found all over the world and throughout history. The manifestation of the idea may be different, but the idea itself is the same.
4 Carl JungSwiss psychologist/psychiatrist whose study of the nature of the human mind resulted in two basic concepts that are important in examining and analyzing literature.Collective unconsciousness unconscious/subconscious mental record of all common human experiences (examples –love, passion, birth, death, anger, peace, evil, spirituality, etc)archetypes – symbols which express our “collective unconscious,” which are our common human experiences
5 Common Character Archetypes The Star-Crossed LoversThis is the young couple joined by love but unexpectedly parted by fate.example - Romeo and JulietUnfaithful wifemarried to a man she sees as dull and unimaginative physically attracted to a more virile or desirable manexample - Guinevere
6 HeroThe main character leaves his or her community to go on an adventure, performing deeds that bring honor to the communityexamples – BeowulfDevil figure offers worldly goods, fame, offers knowledge to the protagonist in exchange for possession of his soulexamples - Lucifer, SatanVillaina cruelly malicious person who is involved in or devoted to wickedness or crime
7 Scapegoat The scapegoat figure is one who gets blamed for everything, regardless of whether he/she is actually at fault.Example – Tom RobinsonOutcasta figure who is banished from a social group for some crime against his fellow manhe/she is usually destined to become a wandererexample - Gollum
8 Trickstercrosses both physical and social boundaries-- the trickster is often a traveler, and he often breaks societal rules. Tricksters cross lines, breaking or blurring connections and distinctions between "right and wrong, sacred and profane, clean and dirty, male and female, young and old, living and dead“AnansiThe innocentChild/YouthInexperienced adultJem and Scout
9 The great teacher/mentor wise old manrepresents knowledge,wisdom, spirituality of soul, insightprotects or helps main character when he or she faces challenges.example -, MerlinEarth mother symbolic of fruition and abundance as well as fertilityexample - Mother Nature
10 The ShrewThis is that nagging, bothersome wife always battering her husband with verbal abuse.example - KatherineEnchantress-Temptresscharacterized by sensuous beauty usually involved in downfall of the hero or protagonistexamples - the Sirens, Calypso, and Cleopatra
11 Situational Archetypes The Loss of Innocence This is, as the name implies, a loss of innocence through sexual experience, violence, or any other means.The InitiationThis is the process by which a character is brought into another sphere of influence, usually (in literature) into adulthood.Ex. Jem and Scott in To Kill a Mockingbird
12 Questare searching for something, whether consciously or unconsciously. Their actions, thoughts, and feelings center around the goal of completing the quest.example - Ahab’s quest for the albino whaleTaskA situation in which a character, or group of characters, is driven to complete some duty often of monstrous proportion.example --Frodo’s task to keep the ring safe in The Lord of the Rings
13 Falldescribes a descent, usually of a hero, from a higher to a lower state of beingusually involves spiritual defilement and/or loss of innocencealso involves an expulsion from some kind paradiseexample - Adam and EveNight journeydescent into earth followed by a return to lightusually, knowledge has been gained through the experienceexample - Orpheus
14 Common Image Archetypes Certain images that recur in myths and other genres of literature often have a common meaning or tend to elicit comparable psychological responses and to serve similar cultural functions.WaterSunColorsShapes, Numbers, & Other objects
15 Watera symbol of life, cleansing, and rebirth—represents the mystery of creationExamples:Sea—spiritual mystery and infinity; timelessness and eternityRiver—death / rebirth (baptism), flowing of time into eternity, transitional phases of the life cycle
16 SunRepresents energy, creativity, thinking, enlightenment, wisdom, spiritual vision, the passing of time, and lifeExamples:Rising Sun—Birth and CreationSetting Sun—death
17 ColorsRed—love, sacrifice, hate, evil, anger, violent passion, sin, blood, disorderGreen—birth / death, fertility, luck, hope, jealousy, decay, greedBlue—sadness, spiritual purity, truth, religious feelings of securityBlack—power, doom, death, darkness, mystery, primal wisdom, unconscious evilWhite—purity, innocence, death, terror, supernatural, blinding truth
18 Shapes Circle (Sphere) wholeness, unity Egg (Oval)—the mystery of life and the forces of regeneration
22 Mountains and peaksHighest peak is place to “see” farPlace to gain great insightCaves and tunnelsDeep down where character delves into selfPlace that character goes when “invisible” or inactiveAt the extreme may signify death
23 ForestHabitat of the Great Mother (Mother Nature), Fertility. The vegetation and animals flourish in this “green world” because of the sustaining power of the Great Mother. Symbolically the primitive levels of the feminine psyche, protective and sheltering. Those who enter often lose their direction or rational outlook and thus tap into their collective unconscious.
24 Tree proliferation, life, immortality growth, road or train journey through life
25 Character Archetypes The great teacher/mentor Hero Outcast Villain Earth motherCircleThe innocentRingGaladrielSauronAragornGollumGandalfFrodo
26 Summer ReadingThink about the books you read over the summer, (The Life of Pi, Girl with a Pearl Earring, A Northern Light, Peace, Like a River, Like Water for Elephants, The Kite Runner, and To Kill a Mockingbird). What archetypes did you notice in those books? For example, water in the Life of Pi.
27 Orange Brown vibrant combination of red and yellow Orangevibrantcombination of red and yellowdenotes energy, warmth, and the sunless intensity or aggression than redcalmed by the cheerfulness of yellowBrownwholesomeness and earthinessrepresents steadfastness, simplicity, friendliness, dependability, and healthwarm neutral color that can stimulate the appetite