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Chapter 21: The Thigh, Hip, Groin, and Pelvis Jennifer Doherty-Restrepo, MS, LAT, ATC Academic Program Director, Entry-Level ATEP Florida International.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21: The Thigh, Hip, Groin, and Pelvis Jennifer Doherty-Restrepo, MS, LAT, ATC Academic Program Director, Entry-Level ATEP Florida International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21: The Thigh, Hip, Groin, and Pelvis Jennifer Doherty-Restrepo, MS, LAT, ATC Academic Program Director, Entry-Level ATEP Florida International University Acute Care and Injury Prevention

2 Anatomy of the Thigh Review



5 Quadriceps Insertion at proximal patella via common tendon Pre-patellar tendon Rectus femoris = bi-articulate muscle Only quad muscle that also crosses the hip Extends knee and flexes the hip Important: distinguish between knee extensors and hip flexors Injury evaluation Treatment and rehabilitation programs

6 Cross the knee joint posteriorly All hamstrings, except the short of head of the biceps femoris, are bi-articulate Crosses the hip joint as well Forces dependent upon position of both knee and hip Important: distinguish between knee flexors and hip extensors Injury evaluation Treatment and rehabilitation programs Hamstrings

7 Thigh Injuries: Quadriceps Contusions Etiology MOI = severe impact, direct blow Extent (depth) of injury depends upon… Force Degree of thigh relaxation Signs and Symptoms Pain, transitory loss of function, immediate effusion (palpable) Graded = superficial to deep Increased loss of function Decreased ROM Decreased strength 1 - 4

8 Management RICE NSAID’s and analgesics Crutches, if indicated Aspiration of hematoma Ice post exercise or re-injury Follow-up care ROM exercises PRE in pain-free ROM Modalities Heat Massage Ultrasound to prevent myositis ossificans Thigh Injuries: Quadriceps Contusions

9 Etiology Formation of ectopic bone MOI = repeated blunt trauma May be the result of improper thigh contusion treatment (too aggressive) Signs and Symptoms X-ray shows Ca ++ deposit weeks post injury Pain, weakness, swelling, tissue tension, point tenderness, and decreased ROM Management Treatment must be conservative May require surgical removal Thigh Injuries: Myositis Ossificans Traumatica

10 Etiology MOI = over-stretching or too forceful contraction Signs and Symptoms Pain, point tenderness, spasm, loss of function, and ecchymosis Superficial strain results in fewer S&S than deeper strain Complete tear results in deformity Athlete displays little disability and discomfort Thigh Injuries: Quadriceps Muscle Strain

11 Management RICE NSAID’s and analgesics Manage swelling Compression, crutches Stretching PRE strengthening exercises Neoprene sleeve for added support Thigh Injuries: Quadriceps Muscle Strain

12 Etiology: multiple theories of injury Hamstrings and quadriceps contract together Change from hip extender to knee flexor Fatigue Posture Leg length discrepancy Lack of flexibility Strength imbalances Thigh Injuries: Hamstring Muscle Strains

13 Signs and Symptoms Pain in muscle belly or point of attachment Capillary hemorrhage Ecchymosis Grade 1 Pain with movement Point tenderness <20% of fibers torn Grade 2 Partial tear <70% of fibers torn Sharp snap or tear Severe pain Loss of function Grade 3 Rupture of tendinous or muscular tissue >70% muscle fiber tearing Severe hemorrhage Disability Edema Loss of function Ecchymosis Palpable mass or gap

14 Thigh Injuries: Hamstring Muscle Strains Management RICE, NSAID’s and analgesics Modalities PRE exercises When soreness is eliminated, focus on eccentrics strengthening Recovery may require months to a full year Scaring increases risk of injury recurrence of Grade I Do not resume full activity until complete function restored Grade 2 and 3 Should treat conservatively Gradual return to stretching and strengthening in later stages of healing

15 Etiology Fracture in middle third of femoral shaft MOI = great deal of force Signs and Symptoms Pain, swelling, deformity, muscle guarding Leg with fx positioned in hip adduction and ER Leg with fx may appear shorter Management Medical emergency! Treat for shock, splint, refer Analgesics and ice Thigh Injuries: Acute Femoral Fractures

16 Etiology Overuse (10-25% of all stress fractures) MOI = excessive downhill running or jumping Often seen in endurance athletes Signs and Symptoms Persistent pain in thigh/groin region X-ray or bone scan will reveal fracture Positive Trendelenburg’s sign Management Prognosis will vary depending on location Fx in shaft and medial to femoral neck heal well with conservative management Fx lateral to femoral neck are more complicated Thigh Injuries: Femoral Stress Fractures

17 Anatomy of the Hip, Groin, and Pelvic Region Review







24 Functional Anatomy Hip Joint True ball and socket joint Intrinsic stability Moves in all three planes, particularly during gait Pelvis Moves in all three planes Anterior tilting Changes degree of lumbar lordosis Lateral tilting Changes degree of hip abduction

25 Assessment of the Hip and Pelvis Injuries to the hip or pelvis cause major disability in the lower limbs, trunk, or both Low back may also become involved History Onset (sudden or slow?) Previous history? Mechanism of injury? Pain description, intensity, quality, duration, type, and location?

26 Observation Symmetry - hips, pelvis tilt (anterior/posterior) Lordosis or flat back Lower limb alignment Knees, patella, feet Pelvic landmarks ASIS, PSIS, iliac crest Standing on one leg Pubic symphysis pain or drop to one side Ambulation Assessment of the Hip and Pelvis

27 True or anatomical Shortening may be equal throughout limb or localized in femur or lower leg Measure from ASIS to medial malleolus Apparent or functional May result due to lateral pelvic tilt, flexion, or adduction deformity Measure from umbilicus to medial malleolus Special Tests: Leg Length Discrepancy

28 Leg Length Discrepancy Measures

29 Hip and Groin Injuries Groin Strain Etiology Injury usually occurs to the adductor longus MOI = running, jumping, or twisting with hip external rotation; over-stretching; or too forceful contraction Signs and Symptoms Sudden twinge or tearing during movement Pain, weakness, and internal hemorrhaging

30 Groin Strain (continued) Management RICE NSAID’s and analgesics Rest is critical Modalities Daily whirlpool and cryotherapy Ultrasound Delay exercise until pain free Restore normal ROM and strength Provide support with elastic wrap Hip and Groin Injuries

31 Trochanteric Bursitis Etiology Inflammation of bursa at greater trochanter Insertion site for gluteus medius and where IT-band passes over the greater trochanter Signs and Symptoms Lateral hip pain that may radiate down the leg Point tenderness over greater trochanter IT-band and TFL tests should be performed Hip and Groin Injuries

32 Trochanteric Bursitis (continued Management RICE NSAID’s and analgesics ROM and PRE exercises for hip abductors and external rotators Phonophoresis Evaluate biomechanics and Q-angle Runners should avoid inclined surfaces Hip and Groin Injuries

33 Sprains of the Hip Joint Etiology Unusual movement exceeding normal ROM MOI = force from opponent/object, or, trunk forced over planted foot in opposite direction Signs and Symptoms Pain, which increases with hip rotation Inability to circumduct hip Similar S&S to stress fracture Hip and Groin Injuries

34 Sprains of the Hip Joint (continued) Management RICE NSAID’s and analgesics Depending on severity, crutches may be required ROM and PRE are delayed until hip is pain-free X-rays or MRI should be performed to rule out a possible fracture Hip and Groin Injuries

35 Dislocated Hip Etiology Result of traumatic force directed along the long axis of the femur Posterior dislocation more common Hip flexed, adducted, and internally rotated Knee flexed Rarely occurs in sport Signs and Symptoms Flexed, adducted, and internally rotated hip Palpation reveals displaced femoral head Medical emergency Compications include soft tissue damage, neurological damage, and possible fracture Hip and Groin Injuries

36 Dislocated Hip (continued) Management Immediate medical care Blood and nerve supply may be compromised Contractures may further complicate reduction 2 weeks immobilization Crutch use for at least one month Hip and Groin Injuries

37 Avascular Necrosis Etiology Temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to the proximal femur MOI = traumatic conditions (ie: hip dislocation) or non- traumatic conditions (ie: steroids, blood coagulation disorders) Signs and Symptoms Possibly no S&S in early stages Develop over the course of months to a year Joint pain with weight bearing, progressing to pain at rest Limited ROM Osteoarthritis may develop Hip and Groin Injuries

38 Avascular Necrosis (continued) Management Must be referred for X-ray, MRI, or CT scan Most cases will ultimately require surgery Conservative treatment Non-weight bearing;ROM exercises; e-stim for bone growth; medication to treat pain Limit necrosis  Reduce fatty substances, which react with corticosteroids  Limit blood clotting in the presence of clotting disorders Hip and Groin Injuries

39 Hip Problems in the Young Athlete Legg Calve’-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) Etiology Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in child ages 4-10 MOI = trauma (accounts for 25% of cases) Signs and Symptoms Pain in groin Referred pain to the abdomen or knee Limping may exhibit limited ROM

40 Hip Problems in the Young Athlete Legg Calve’-Perthes Disease (continued) Management Bed rest to alleviate synovitis Brace to avoid direct weight bearing With early treatment, the femoral head may re-ossify and revascularize Complications If not treated early, will result in ill-shaping May develop into osteoarthritis in later life

41 Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Etiology Found mostly in tall boys between ages May be growth hormone related MOI = trauma (accounts for 25% of cases) 25% of cases are seen in both hips Femoral head slippage on X-ray appears in posterior and inferior direction Hip Problems in the Young Athlete

42 Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (continued) Signs and Symptoms Pain in groin that progresses over weeks or months Hip and knee pain during passive and active motion Limitations of hip abduction, flexion, and medial rotation Limp Management Minor slippage Rest and non-weight bearing may prevent further slippage Major slippage results in displacement Requires surgery If condition goes undetected or if surgery fails, severe problems will result Hip Problems in the Young Athlete

43 The Snapping Hip Phenomenon Etiology Common in young female dancers, gymnasts, and hurdlers MOI = repetitive movement that leads to muscle imbalance Related to narrow pelvis, increased hip abduction, and limited lateral rotation Hip stability is compromised Hip Problems in the Young Athlete

44 The Snapping Hip Phenomenon (continued) Signs and Symptoms Pain while balancing on one leg Possible inflammation Management ROM exercises to increase flexibility Flexion and lateral rotation Cryotherapy and ultrasound may be utilized PRE exercises to strengthen weak muscles Hip Problems in the Young Athlete

45 Contusion (hip pointer) Etiology Contusion of iliac crest or abdominal musculature MOI = direct blow Signs and Symptoms Pain, spasm, and transitory paralysis Decreased ROM due to pain Rotation of trunk, thigh/hip flexion Pelvic Injuries

46 Contusion (hip pointer) continued Management RICE for at least 48 hours NSAID’s, Bed rest days Referral must be made for X-ray Modailities Ice massage, ultrasound, occasionally steroid injection Recovery lasts weeks Pelvic Injuries

47 Stress Fractures Etiology Seen in distance runners – more common in women than men MOI = repetitive cyclical forces from ground reaction forces Common sites include inferior pubic ramus, femoral neck, and subtrochanteric area of the femur Signs and Symptoms Groin pain Aching sensation in thigh that increases with activity and decreases with rest Standing on one leg may be impossible Deep palpation results in point tenderness Pelvic Injuries

48 Stress Fractures (continued) Management Rest for months Crutch walking Especially for ischium and pubis stress fractures X-rays are usually normal for weeks, therefore a bone scan will be required to detect the stress fracture Swimming can be used to maintain CV fitness Breast stroke should be avoided Pelvic Injuries

49 Avulsion Fractures and Apophysitis Etiology Common sites include ischial tuberosity, AIIS, and ASIS MOI = sudden accelerations and decelerations Signs and Symptoms Sudden localized pain Limited ROM Pain, swelling, point tenderness Muscle testing increases pain Pelvic Injuries

50 Avulsion Fractures and Apophysitis (continued) Management X-ray required for diagnosis RICE, NSAID’s, crutch “toe-touch” walking ROM exercises PRE exercises When 80 degrees of ROM have been regained Return to play when full ROM and strength are restored Pelvic Injuries

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