Theology Theology that derived from the Qur’an and the Prophetic traditions called Hadiths Basis of faith in Islam: No god but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah Allah is indivisible and absolutely transcendent; He is almighty, the Creator and Sustainer of the universe
Shia Islamic Theology Five Basic Elements: 1. Tawhid – Oneness of Allah 2. Adalah – Justice of Allah 3. Nubuwwah – Prophethood; Allah has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion – Muhammad the most important of the Prophets 4. Imamah – Leadership; Allah has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind – Shia believes in 12 Imams; 11 have been killed but believe the twelfth is still alive 5. Qiyamah – Day of Judgment – There will be a resurrection of souls where human deeds will be judged by Allah – will be rewards and punishments
Islamic Philosophy Main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself (the Qur’an) and Greek philosophy. In early Islamic thought, there were two main currents: Kalam and Falsafa. الفلسفه
Schools of Dogmatic Theology - Sunni (Kalam) 1. Mu’tazilah School 2. Ash’ariyyah School 3. Maturidiyyah School نظام اللاهوت
1. Mu’tazilah School Arose in the early part of the 8 th century CE Emphasize human free will over predestination and God's justice over God's omnipotence Believe in the use of logic to deduct the true meanings of the Qur’an When combined with the principle of ljtihad, it allows for the Dynamic Fiqh (taking time, location into account) when making religious laws.
2. Ash’ariyyah School In the 10 th century CE, in reaction against the Mu’tazilah, the Sunni movement arose. It drastically changed the direction of Islamic theology and helped to separate it from the theology of the Christians. Its major figure was Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari. – His school, the Ash’ari school, came to dominate the orthodox position in the Sunni Muslim world.
2. Ash’ariyyah School (cont.) Followers attempted to demonstrate the existence and nature of God through rational argument, while affirming the eternal, uncreated nature of the Qur’an Comprehension of unique nature and characteristics of Allah were beyond human capability They were accused by the Mu'tazilah of believing in predestination because they claimed the human capacity for action was only acquired at the very moment of action.
3. Maturidiyyah School Named after Abu Mansur Muhammad al-Maturidi, its founder Characterized by reliance on the Qur’an with minimal reasoning and little scope for interpretation Emphasize human free will over predestination Believed in the use of logic to deduct the true meanings of the Qur’an Asserted that a Muslim who sincerely performed all religious duties as prescribed in the Qur'an was assured of a place in heaven
Differences between Shia and Sunni Doctrines Unlike (most) Sunni, Shia believe that the Prophet Muhammad and the 12 Imams are immaculate from sin Shia also believe that faith has an outer meaning accessible to all through study of commentaries and an inner meaning is accessible only through the Prophet and Imams A difference also comes with the hadith; they both pray 5x a day. Shia sometimes worship 2x consecutively; they do not perform non-obligatory prayers in congregation
Falsafa Ibn Sina – Iranian scientist and philosopher who founded the school of Avicennism From 9 th c. CE and onward, Greek philosophy was introduced among the Persians and Arabs During Abbasid caliphate, a number of thinkers and scientists played a role in transmitting Greek, Hindu, and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian world. Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna and the Arab, al- Kindi combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam
Contemporary Islamic Philosophy Teaching of hikmat has continued and flourished – Entered the world through Greek cultural diffusion in 8 th and 9 th c. – Arabic word meaning “wisdom” Dr. Allama Muhammad Iqbal ( ) – notable Muslim philosopher, poet and scholar from Pakistan – He helped to reshape and revitalize Islamic philosophy amongst the Muslims in the 20 th c.
The Five Pillars of Islam 1. Creed-Shahadah 2. Prayer-Salat 3. Charity to the Poor-Zakat 4. Fasting During Ramadan 5. Pilgrimmage to Mecca
Creed-Shahadah There is no God, but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet.
Prayer-Salat Pray 5 times a day towards Mecca (the Kabba) – Before dawn, midday, mid-afternoon, sunset, nighttime Announced by a muezzin from a minaret Ritual cleansing Friday is the public day of prayer
Charity to the Poor-Zakat Giving 2.5% of income to the poor Perform acts of charity everyday to those in need
Fasting During Ramadan Abstain from eating during daylight hours No sex at night – Discipline – Develop sympathy for poor – Devotion to Allah Muhammad receives his revelations
Pilgrimage to Mecca-Hajj Birthplace of Muhammad Should make trip at least once during lifetime Only Muslims can visit city Greatest month is dhu’l-Hijjah Purification process includes uniforms for clothing and special prayers