2Folk CultureCultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communitiesExamples?Amish, Mennonites, HutteritesSelect areas of LDCs
3aka Local CultureLocal culture – group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or community, who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and to distinguish themselves from others
4Popular CultureCultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today’s changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies.Examples?Blue jeansHip Hop
5How did you become a “knower” of your favorite kind of music? Where is its hearth?How did it reach you?What type of diffusion?
6Assimilation – the minority population reduces or loses completely its identifying cultural characteristics and blends into the host societyAcculturation - cultural modification or change that results when one culture group adopts traits of a dominant society; cultural development or change through “borrowingIn The Kite Runner, how well did the Afghans adapt to America?
7Neolocalism – seeking out regional culture and reinvigorating it (ex Neolocalism – seeking out regional culture and reinvigorating it (ex. Little Sweden in Kansas)Commodification of a culture can compromise authenticity becoming a stereotype –examples?CherokeeBranson, MoGuinness and the Irish Pub Co.
8Rural Local Cultures Hutterites Branch of Anabaptists absolute pacifismLive in rural, self-sufficient “colonies”Forbid use tv, radioUsually only 1telephone for thecommunityAvoid pictures
10Urban Local Cultures Ethnic Neighborhoods – Hasidic Jews Pious Distinctive clothesSpeak YiddishDo not watch tv, but will listen to radioOther Urban Local Culture examplesItalian neighborhoods, Chinatowns, Mexican, Russian, Polish
12Makah American Indians Early culture included whale huntingHowever, whale hunting in the 17th – 19th century became increasingly commercial and detrimental to the whale population1946 – International Whaling Commission instituted regulations1990’s – Makah American Indians, Washington reinstated whale hunting facing much protest1999 – whale killed but not in traditional way with canoes and harpoons, but according to IWC regulations a .50 caliber rifle
13Material folk culture regions Each region possesses many distinctive items of material cultureQuebec French folk region-grist windmills with stone towers, and a bowling game played with small metal ballsMormon folk culture — distinctive hay derricks and gridiron farm villagesWestern plains ranching folk culture — the “beef wheel,” a windlass used during butchering
14QuebecPetanque, a bowling game played with metal balls, diffused to Canada with French immigrants in the 16th century. It has persisted as one aspect of Quebec French folk region.
15FOLK LIFE Material Culture - Artifacts Physical, Visible Things Musical Instruments, Furniture, Tools, BuildingsThe Built Environment – the landscape createdThe Contents of Houses & Shops
16Nonmaterial CultureMentifacts & SociofactsOral Traditions, Folk Songs, Stories, PhilosophiesIncludes beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of peopleMentifacts represent the ideas and beliefs of a culture, for example religion, language or lawSociofacts represent the social structures of a culture, such as tribes or families.artifact is a human-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users
17Music American folk music began as transplants of Old World songs Northern songFeatured unaccompanied solo signing in clear hard tonesFeatured Fiddle or fife-and-drumSouthern, Backwoods, and Appalachian songFeatured unaccompanied high pitch and nasal solo singingMarked by moral and emotional conflictRoots of country musicWestern songFactual, narrative songsThemes of natural beauty, personal valor, and feminine puritySome songs reworked as lumberjack ballads
19Country and Western music Impact of migration of Upland Southern folk on bluegrass musicMigrated to Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma plus the Depression era movement of “Okies” and “Arkies” to the Central Valley of CaliforniaProvided natural areas for bluegrass expansion in the mid-twentieth century
20Food and drink Local cuisine based on what is available Also is based on local customsEx. Geophagy – eating dirt,common in Africa & southern United States,may counteract digestive issues,common among pregnant women
22Folk food regionsMexico—abundant use of chili peppers in cooking and maize for tortillasCaribbean areas — combined rice-bean dishes and various rum drinksAmazonian region — monkey and caimanBrazil — cuscuz (cooked grain) and sugarcane brandyPampas style — carne asada (roasted beef), wine and yerba mate (herbal tea)Pacific-coastal Creole — manjar blanco (a pudding)
23Folk food regionsLatin American foods derive from Amerindians, Africans, Spaniards, and PortuguesePattern of Latin American is not simple and culinary regions are not as homogeneous as the map we saw suggests
25Folklore regionsDisplays regional contrasts in much the same way as material folk cultureFolk geographers consider diverse nonmaterial phenomena as folktales, dance, music, myths, legends, and proverbsMost thoroughly studied in EuropeFirst research appeared early in the nineteenth centuryWe know more about vanished folk cultures than surviving onesExample of Switzerland