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MANIFOLDS and HEADS n Chapter 8 n Classroom Manual n Page 179 CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK.

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Presentation on theme: "MANIFOLDS and HEADS n Chapter 8 n Classroom Manual n Page 179 CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANIFOLDS and HEADS n Chapter 8 n Classroom Manual n Page 179 CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

2 OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES n Explain the function of the intake manifold. n Explain the function of the exhaust manifold. n Describe the function of the valve spring. n Explain the differences in valve stem seals. n Describe the purpose in valve guides & the difference between intregal & insert types. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

3 OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES n Describe the function of the valve seats. n List & describe the function of the valve parts. n Determine the causes of common valve malfunctions. n Determine abnormal valve seat wear. n Describe the different types of combustion chambers. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

4 INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION n Proper combustion requires the engine to “breathe” properly. n Intake & Exhaust manifolds & Valve train must all work together. n Cylinder head design affects power. n Discuss common types of failures. n Determine normal & Abnormal wear. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

5 MANIFOLDSMANIFOLDS n Intake n Materials –Cast Iron –Aluminum –Plastic n Manifold Types –Single Plane –Dual Plane n Runner Design n Exhaust n Materials –Cast Iron –Steel Tubing –Stainless Steel Tubing n Manifold Types –Factory cast –Tube Headers n Runner Design CBC AUTO RK

6 INTAKE MANIFOLD n Runners are Level n Equal runner length and cross section. n Wet or Dry n Inlet temp 100 n Exhaust crossover passage CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

7 DUAL PLANE

8 PRE-HEAT SYSTEM

9 BIMETAL SENSOR

10 EXHAUST MANIFOLD n A restriction of exhaust gas flow can result in excessive backpressure. n Proper tuning of the exhaust manifold (headers) creates a vacuum that assists in air/fuel mixture induction into the cylinder. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 182

11 CYLINDER HEADS n Valves n Seats n Springs n Combustion Chamber n Expansion rate differences n Electrolysis CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 184

12 CYLINDER HEAD

13 VALVE MALFUNCTIONS n Burned Valves n Channeling - page 190 n Metal Erosion n Breakage n Valve Stem Wear - page 191 CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 188

14 VALVESVALVES Improper valve seat finish. Heat transfer.

15 VALVE SEATS n There are two types of seats: –Intregal valve seats. –Removable valve seats. n Materials –Cast Iron –Bronze –Various Stainless Steel Alloys n Seat Recession Page 192 CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

16 VALVE SPRINGS n Valve springs close the valve against its seat. n And maintain tension in the valve train. n Valves open & close 6000 RPM. n Valve float is when the lifter leaves the cam surface. n Heat destroys springs. n Do NOT clean springs in hot tank. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 194

17 VALVE GUIDES n Two types of Valve Guides: –Intregal –Insert n Materials –Cast Iron –Bronze n Some Guides MUST be removed in a specific direction. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 195

18 VALVE SEALS n Valve Stem Seal Materials –Polyaceate 250 –Neopreme 300 –Viton 440 –Teflon CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 196 n Valve Stem Seal Types –O-Ring –Umbrella –Positive

19 ROCKER ARMS n Typical ratio 1.5 : 1 n Check fulcrum or stud for wear. n Check tip and pushrod socket. n Adjustable or non-adjustable. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 197

20 COMPONENT RELATIONSHIP n As the valve and seat are ground, the valve tip will extend farther thru the head. n This will change valve spring pressure. n And rocker arm alignment. CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 197

21 COMBUSTION CHAMBER DESIGNS n Wedge Chamber - page 198 n Hemispherical Chamber n Swirl Chamber - page 199 n Chamber-in Piston n Pentroof Chamber - page 200 n Fast Burn n Tumble Port - page 201 n Stratified Charge Chamber CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK

22 THE COMBUSTION PROCESS n Preignition –page 203 n Detonation –Page 204 CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 202

23 MULTIVALVE ENGINES CBC AUTOMOTIVE RK Page 204


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