Presentation on theme: "for Middle Distance & Distance Runners by Lyle Knudson, Ed.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 for Middle Distance & Distance Runners by Lyle Knudson, Ed.D. SPEED-BASED TRAININGforMiddle Distance & Distance RunnersbyLyle Knudson, Ed.D.
2 WHAT IS SPEED-BASED TRAINING? More accurately titled –“Speed, Speed Endurance, & Specific Endurance Based Training”Training specific to the demands of the event(s)
3 VS. AEROBIC-ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING As has been applied by most U.S. distance coaches over the past 35+ years.Commonly referred to as the “Pyramid Model”Develop an Aerobic-Endurance “base” via long-slow running, then gradually transition to include training more specific to the event
4 PROBLEMS WITH Aerobic-Endurance Based Training Through 60’s & early 70’s, when interval training (more like Speed-Based Training) was the primary training method, the U.S. dominated middle distance and distance running in the worldSince then, Aerobic-Endurance Based Training has become the dominant approach to U.S. distance training, U.S. middle distance and distance performances, at all levels, have declined over this period. U.S. developed athletes are no longer even a factor in world-class distance running.There is no valid scientific justification for the Aerobic-Endurance Based Training approach.
5 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING-ADAPTATION Your body adapts to the stresses applied.Your body adapts to the SPECIFIC stresses applied.Your body will only adapt to unaccustomed stimuli.Adaptation occurs during recovery.Your body also adapts to lack of stress. You regressYour body will positively adapt to stress, unless the stresses are too great.
6 YOUR BODY ADAPTS TO THE STRESSES APPLIED You train (i.e., apply stress). Then your body adapts to be able to perform at higher levels.
7 YOUR BODY ADAPTS TO THE SPECIFIC STRESSES APPLIED. For Example:If you properly train “Speed”, you body will adapt to run faster.If you properly train “Speed Endurance”, your body will adapt to run fast longer.If you properly train “Specific Endurance”, your body will adapt to run a specific distance faster.If you train long and slow, your body will adapt to run longer and slower.
8 YOUR BODY WILL ONLY ADAPT TO UNACCUSTOMED STIMULI. For example:To improve “speed”, you must train faster (greater stride length & frequency) than your current maximum speed.To run your objective race distance faster, you must train at paces faster than your current PR in that event.If you only train at paces at or slower than what you’ve already accomplished in your event, your body will not adapt to run faster.
9 ADAPTATION OCCURS DURING RECOVERY. Full recovery-adaptation from a hard training bout requires hours of very limited activity.High volumes of long-slow running inhibits recovery-adaptation.
10 YOUR BODY ALSO ADAPTS TO LACK OF STRESS. YOU REGRESS. If you don’t train a specific event component (e.g., speed, speed endurance, specific endurance) on a regular basis, you begin to loose it.Negative adaptation of a component generally begins to occur after a hour period of non-training of that component.
11 YOUR BODY WILL POSITIVELY ADAPT TO STRESS, UNLESS THE STRESSES ARE TOO GREAT. If the stresses are too great, you will not improve, will regress, and/or will become injured or ill.Short-term stresses (e.g., a hard workout) are seldom the cause of injury or illness.Cumulative stress (due to lack of recovery-adaptation between workouts) is generally the cause of lack of improvement, regression of performances, and injuries & illnesses.
12 CONCLUSION Speed, Speed-Endurance, & Specific- Endurance Based Training NOT Aerobic-Endurance Based Training
13 REVIEW Scientific Principles as they relate to – SPEED-BASED TRAINING vs.AEROBIC-ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING(go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Introduction page)
14 TO ADHERE TO THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING-ADAPTATION Use Speed, Speed-Endurance, & Specific Endurance based training.Follow a COMPREHENSIVE and SYSTEMATIC program.
15 COMPREHENSIVE and SYSTEMATIC TRAINING COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING - Identifying and properly training all affective components of performance in the event(s).SYSTEMATIC TRAINING - For adequate stress and recovery (and therefore maximum positive adaptation) and to avoid negative adaptation (due to lack of stress or over-stress), you must train consistently according to “training cycles”. Training Cycles are time periods of systematically varying physiological and psycho-social stress loads.(will discuss Systematic Training later when tying the total program together)
16 COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE WHICH APPLY TO THE MIDDLE DISTANCE AND DISTANCE EVENTS:Strength - ability to apply forceQuickness - frequency of repeating a specific movement patternPower = Strength X Quickness = the ability to apply maximum force over a minimum period of timeSpeed = Power = Stride Length (result of Strength & Technique) X Stride Frequency (result of Quickness & Technique)Endurance - ability to sustain a movement pattern (movement & intensity) over an interval of time (duration). Four “endurances”, defined by movement duration & intensity:Aerobic Endurance - long & slowSpeed (Anaerobic) Endurance - short & fastAnaerobic Threshold - moderate duration & speedSpecific Endurance - (% Anaerobic – Aerobic specific to event; at objective event distance and pace
17 NOTEThe majority of components are Speed, Speed-Endurance, and Specific Endurance related.Aerobic Endurance and Anaerobic Threshold are also important components, and will be included in the total training program discussed later, but are not the dominating factors as practiced in most U.S. distance programs.
18 WHY IS SPEED DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT TO DISTANCE RUNNERS? SPEED - JustificationWHY IS SPEED DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT TO DISTANCE RUNNERS?The common response is “for the finishing kick”. But in a race of equal runners who know how to maximize performance (i.e., run equal & optimum pace throughout), if you hold back and save/wait for the kick, you’ll be so far behind that a great kick is not going to make up the difference.The primary benefit of Speed is to be able to run more efficiently (i.e., at a faster pace with the same effort) throughout the race. For example, if you’re best 100m time is 15 seconds, you’ll certainly not be able to maintain that pace for a 2:00 800m. But if you can run a m, with proper Specific Endurance Training, you’ll be able to maintain a 15.0 pace throughout to achieve a 2:00.
19 SHOULD YOU DEVELOP SPEED OR ENDURANCE FIRST? Certainly don’t develop Aerobic-Endurance first, because long-slow running will cause loss of Speed.Some sprint coaches advocate an Inverted Pyramid Model, developing Speed first and then adding Endurance training to extend the Speed over increasingly greater distances.Based on the Scientific Principles, you can and should develop Speed and Endurance simultaneously.
20 HOW TO IMPROVE SPEEDSpeed (velocity) = Stride Length X Stride FrequencySo to improve Speed, increase Stride Length and Stride FrequencyTo increase Stride Length, improve Sprint Technique (body positions & movement patterns) and StrengthTo increase Stride Frequency, improve Sprint Technique and QuicknessTo increase both Stride Length and Stride Frequency simultaneously, reduce ground contact by improving Sprint Technique and Power
21 SPRINT TECHNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS Minimize ground contactRun tallUp & down (vs. forward & back) movements of arms and legs relative to body alignmentEmphasize front-side (vs. back-side) mechanicsMaintain arms at 90 degreesDorsiflex feetPawing motion of legs (vs. push in back & brake in front)
22 ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING SPRINT TECHNIQUE, STRIDE LENGTH, AND STRIDE FREQUENCY I. DYNAMIC LEAD-UPS:Exercises which systematically progress from little to optimum ranges of motion, and from slow to maximum speedAs part of Warm-Up on formal training daysExercises; 3 X 15-30m each of:Low KneesSprint WalksSprint SkipsHigh KneesBuild-UpsAccelerationsFlyingsStart-Throughs
23 Both Stride Length & Stride Frequency II. SPECIFIC SPEED DEVELOPMENT EXERCISES (conducted at high intensities over short durations) (benefits)Stride LengthStride FrequencyBoth Stride Length & Stride FrequencyResistedUphillsTowingAgainst The WindLong Stick DrillWeighted VestsStrength TrainingPower WalkDepth JumpsAssistedDownhillsBeing TowedWith The WindShort Stick DrillQuick LegsLow KneesPower TrainingSprint WalksSprint SkipsHigh KneesBuild-UpsAccelerationsFlyingsStart-Throughs
24 MEASURING/CALCULATING COMPONENTS OF SPEED DEVELOPMENT, #1 Components - Time (per distance), Speed/Velocity, Stride Length, Stride Frequency, Ground Contact (vs. Air Times)Purpose - Determine where you are now, your development needs, and the progress your making in Speed developmentRequired - 30m Fly time, video/DVD recording of 30m Fly, video/DVD player or computer software capable of displaying/counting frame by frame
25 MEASURING/CALCULATING COMPONENTS OF SPEED DEVELOPMENT, #2 ALGORITHMS FOR COMPUTING THE COMPONENTS:Velocity = Distance/Time = 30m / 30m Fly TimeTime for 5 strides = 1/30 X Number of Frames for 5 strides (assuming frame frequency of 30 frames per second)Stride Frequency = 5 / Time For 5 StridesStride Length = Velocity / Stride FrequencyINTERPRETATION; OPTIMUMS:Stride length = 2.35 – 2.50 X trochanter lengthStride Frequency = 4.5 – 5.0 strides per secondFrames Per Stride < 7Ground time < 3 frames
26 (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Development page) REVIEWSPEED DEVELOPMENT(go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Development page)
27 ENDURANCEDefinitionClassificationsPhysiology Of
28 DEFINITION OF ENDURANCE Endurance - the ability to sustain a specific movement pattern (e.g., running at an objective pace) over a given interval of time (duration)
29 CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENDURANCE FOUR DIFFERENT INTERDEPENDENT “ENDURANCES”, DEFINED BY MOVEMENT INTENSITY AND DURATION; DETERMINED BY AEROBIC AND/OR ANAEROBIC ENERGY UTILIZATION.Aerobic Endurance - ability to sustain a low intensity movement pattern over a long period of timeAnaerobic Endurance (also called Speed Endurance) - ability to sustain a very high movement pattern over a short interval of timeAnaerobic Threshold - stress level at which anaerobic stores begin to be utilized to sustain the intensity of the movement patternSpecific Endurance - ability to sustain a desired intensity of movement pattern over an objective duration; requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy
30 PHYSIOLOGY OF ENDURANCE Protein SynthesisGeneration Of Energy
31 PROTEIN SYNTHESISTHE PRIMARY ADAPTATION MECHANISM IN THE BODY IS THE REGENERATION AND INCREASE OF:Structural Protein - muscle, connective tissue, organs, blood cells, mitochondria, …Enzymatic Protein - enzymes, hormones; which motivate and control cellular functionMUST GET THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS INTO THE CELL, AND STIMULATE THE SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURAL & ENZYMATIC PROTEIN; HOW?Nutrition - adequate protein & complex carbohydrates (vegetables, fruits, grains); limited sugars, starches, and fatsHard Training, specific to event; avoid excessive long-slow distance (reduces growth hormone levels)Adequate recovery-adaptation between hard training bouts; generally hours of easy activity
32 GENERATION OF ENERGY (ATP) (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic)
33 GENERATION OF ENERGY (ATP) (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic)
34 Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance GENERATION OF ENERGY (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic)% ANAEROBIC – AEROBICBrief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance
35 Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance % ANAEROBIC – AEROBICAPPROXIMATE PERCENTAGES OF CONTRIBUTION OF ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC FOR MAXIMUM EFFORT PERFORMANCES IN GIVEN EVENTS.Distance Anaerobic % Aerobic %25m 100% 0%50m 99% 1%100m 98% 2%200m 95% 5%400m 90% 10%800m 70% 30%1500m/1600m 50% 50%3000m/3200m 30% 70%3000mSt/5000m 20% 80%10k 10% 90%20k 5% 95%Marathon (42k) 0% 100%Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance
36 SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE Definition of Speed Endurance - ability to run at maximum speed longer (60m > 150m); provides increased capacity of anaerobic stores contributing to performance in events requiring both aerobic and anaerobic energyPhysiological Adaptations to Speed Endurance Training - increase of structural & enzymatic protein; increase in anaerobic stores (neural impulse, stored ATP, stored CP, buffering/tolerance/diffusion of lactic acidSpeed Endurance Duration, Energy Sources, Training, & Recovery:Recovery (between reps;Duration Energy Sources Training (reps) generally 1 min. per 10m)0-.2 sec. neural impulse + ATP change in motion secondsspecific to running0–5 sec. neural impulse + ATP + CP m – 50m – 5 minutes0–15 sec. neural impulse + ATP + CP m – 150m – 15 minutesbuffering of lactic acid
37 SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE WHERE IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM?Sprinters ( ) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups) and Specific Endurance Workout (day training events = 25, 50, 100, & 200)Middle Distance ( ) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups) and Specific Endurance Workout (day training events = 200, 400)Distance (3000-marathon) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups)
38 SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE EXAMPLES OF SPEED ENDURANCE WORKOUTS; FOR SPECIFIC DAY TRAINING EVENTSDay Training Event In Addition to Dynamic Lead-Ups & Speed Development Exercises25m X 1 arms action; start at 5X seconds8 X knee up-downs, each leg; start at 5X seconds8 X vertical jumps from ½ squat position; start at 15X seconds4 X start-through 15m; start at 2X minutes4 X flying 15m; start at 2X minutes50m X flying 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5; 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, 1 min. bet.100m X start-through 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70; 1,2,3,4,5,6 min. bet.200m X 30m build-ups, on curve; 3 minutes between3 X 30m accelerations, on straight; 3 minutes between3 X 30m start-throughs, on curve; 3 minutes between3 X 30m flyings, on straight; 3 minutes between400m X flying 30, 60, 90, 120, 150; 3, 6, 9, 12 minutes between
39 (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Endurance Development page) REVIEWSPEED ENDURANCE TRAINING(go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Endurance Development page)
40 (Elaborate over previous introduction) SPECIFIC ENDURANCEDEFINITION - Specific Endurance is the ability to run at maximum pace throughout a specific event that requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy (i.e., all events 50m through marathon)RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC ENERGY AT DURATIONS & INTENSITIES REQUIRING BOTH.(Elaborate over previous introduction)
41 SPECIFIC ENDURANCEAPPROXIMATE PERCENTAGES OF CONTRIBUTION OF ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC FOR MAXIMUM EFFORTIN GIVEN EVENTS:Distance Anaerobic % Aerobic %25m 100% 0%50m 99% 1%100m 98% 2%200m 95% 5%400m 90% 10%800m 70% 30%1500m/1600m 50% 50%3000m/3200m 30% 70%3000mSt/5000m 20% 80%10k 10% 90%20k 5% 95%Marathon (42k) 0% 100%
42 TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE The most “specific” endurance training is at the desired intensity (i.e., pace) of the objective event (TD – Training Distance).However, for maximum development, you should systematically train “up to” and “down to” the intensity of the objective event.OOD (Over-Over Distance) and OD (Over Distance) represents lower intensity but greater duration training.UUD (Under-Under distance) and UD (Under Distance) represents higher intensity but lower duration training.The recommended sequence of formal training (MWF, MWSa, or TThSa) over a two week cycle is OOD, UUD, OD, UD, TD, and miscellaneous (i.e., competition, simulated competition, or which of OOD, OD, TD, UD, or UUD is most needed. See next slide for example.
43 SPECIFIC ENDURANCE TRAINING, EXAMPLE If the selected Training Distance is 800m, the training objective paces would be sequentially at 3000/3200, 200, 1500/1600, 400, and 800 respectively over a two-week cycle.Assuming the formal training days are TThSa, the training objectives and paces would be:Days I Objective Day Training Event PaceSundayMondayTuesday OOD 3000m/3200mWednesdayThursday UUD 200mFridaySaturday OD 1500m/1600mTuesday UD 400mThursday TD 800m14.Saturday (Miscellaneous)
44 TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE SELECTING THE OBJECTIVE TRAINING DISTANCEFor a given athlete, the Objective Training Distance can vary year to year, from season to season, or within a season.If the Training Distance is to vary, the athletes should train “down to up” in distance; i.e., develop the speed, speed endurance and specific endurance to run at the objective pace at the shorter distance, then develop the specific endurance to extend that pace to the longer distance.If an athlete competes in more than one event (e.g., 800 & 1500), the Training Distance should be the shorter distance.
45 TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE OBJECTIVE PACE OF WORKOUTSSo that the body will know specifically what it’s supposed to adapt to, the entire workout (i.e., each rep) should be run only at the objective Day Training Event Pace.Set recoveries commensurate with the number and distance/duration of reps so that the runners will naturally run at the objective Day Training Event pace when trying to run the total workout as fast as possible.The objective workout pace should be faster (approximately 3% faster velocity) than the current PR in the Training Event for that day.
46 TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE WORKOUT VOLUMESThe total distance/duration, at the objective Training Event pace, for the workout should be:Training Distance Multiple Total Distance25m 8X 200m50m 6X 300m100m 5X 500m200m 4X 800m400m 3X 1200m800m 2.5X 2000m1500m/1600m 2.25X 3600m3000m/3200m 2X 6000m3000mSt/5000m 1.75X 9000m10k X 15k15k X 22.5k20k X 30kApproaching major competitions (e.g., State HS Meet, National Championships), to assure full recovery/adaptation from any accumulated stresses (physical and/or psycho-social), volumes should be reduced to approximately 75% and 50% the last two weeks prior.
47 TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE TRAINING TYPESTo allow for a variety of training, to accommodate/train other aspects (e.g., psycho-social stresses, race strategies), and yet meet the aforementioned requirements and get the same training effects, workouts should be broken down by Training Types. Example workouts for different Training Types, for a 1500/1600 as the Training Event for the day (therefore, approximately 3600m total distance), are:SAMPLE WORKOUTS BASED ON DISTANCESTraining Type Sample WorkoutShort Intervals 36 X 100m, 1 minute recovery between repsMedium Intervals 18 X 200m, 2 minutes recovery between repsLong Intervals 9 X 400m, 3 minutes recovery between repsStep-Ups 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800; 4 minutes recoveryStep-Downs 800, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100; 4 minutes recoveryStep Up-Downs 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100; 4 min. bet.Step Down-Ups 500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500; 3 minutes betweenSets-Reps 3 X (4 X 300); 2 minutes between reps, 4 minutes between setsSAMPLE WORKOUTS BASED ON TIMEShort Intervals 36 X :15, start on 1X minutesMedium Intervals 18 X :30, start on 2X minutesLong Intervals 9 X 1:00, start on 4X minutesStep-Ups :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30, 1:45, 2:00; 4 minutes betweenStep-Downs 2:00, 1:45, 1:30, 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15; 4 minutes betweenStep Up-Downs :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30, 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15; 4 min. bet.Step Down-Ups 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15; 3 minutes betweenSets-Reps 3 X (4 X :45); 2 minutes between reps, 4 minutes between sets
48 REVIEW TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING and Specific Endurance Training page)
49 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING DEFINITIONAnaerobic Threshold (AT) training is continuous running at approximately anaerobic threshold pace, often referred to as “quality distance” or “tempo” running.An individual’s AT pace is most easily estimated by running a known long distance (e.g., 5k for 800/1500 runner, 10k for a 3000 runner, 15k for a 5000 runner, 20k for a marathoner) at near maximum effort, and then computing the pace.Or AT pace is between heart rate for highly trained runners, for younger and less developed individuals.
50 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING IMPORTANCE OFANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAININGWhile not as important to development as Speed, Speed Endurance, and Specific Endurance, improving the Anaerobic Threshold does allow the athlete to sustain a faster pace without using Anaerobic stores, particularly relevant in the longer distance races.
51 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING WHERE IN TRAINING PROGRAM?AT training on recovery days1/2AT on recovery days prior to competitions and as morning runs on formal workout daysTo allow for full recovery-adaptation, the duration of AT runs must be controlled.
52 ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING AT TRAININGSuggested AT training for various objective Training Distance events is AR-AT-AR, where AR is the time in minutes of Aerobic running. AT is the time in minutes at AT pace.AT TRAINING DURATIONS (minutes)Training Distance AR-AT-AR /2AT800m1500m/1600m3000m/3200m3000mSt/5000m10k20k - Marathon
53 AEROBIC ENDURANCE TRAINING DEFINITION - Aerobic Endurance Training (AR) is slow continuous running (generally heart rate for elite runners, for less developed) over longer distances.IMPORTANCE OF AEROBIC TRAINING - While not as important to development as Speed, Speed Endurance, Specific Endurance, and Anaerobic Threshold training, properly applied Aerobic Endurance training aids warm-up & recovery and contributes progressively to performances at greater distances/durations.PROBLEMS WITH EXCESSIVE AEROBIC TRAINING - Because high volumes of long-slow running lowers the natural growth hormones in the body, it detracts from the development of Speed, Speed Endurance, Specific Endurance, and Anaerobic Threshold characteristics, and therefore actually retards development and causes decreases of performances in middle distance and distance events.
54 AEROBIC ENDURANCE TRAINING AR TRAININGOn formal training days, 6 minutes of AR running is recommended as initial warmup for, and final warmdown from, workouts for middle distance runners, 12 minutes each for distance runners.On recovery days, and morning runs on formal training days, athletes will do an additional minutes of AR as a part of their AT training.In addition, Sunday AR runs are suggested as:SUNDAY AR DURATIONSTraining Distance AR Duration800m minutes1500m/1600m 30 minutes3000m/3200m 45 minutes3000mSt/5000m 60 minutes10k minutes20K - Marathon 90 minutes
55 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER SYSTEMATIC TRAINING=TRAINING CYCLES
56 SYSTEMATIC TRAININGFor adequate stress and recovery (and therefore maximum positive adaptation) and to avoid negative adaptation (due to lack of stress or over-stress), you must train consistently according to “training cycles”.Training cycles are time periods of systematically varying physiological and psycho-social stress loads.
57 MODELING OF TRAINING CYCLES Training cycles can be modeled via a progressive sinusoidal curve as illustrated below.Physical stresses are from the intensity and duration of training. Psycho-social stresses are from the formality of training, emphasis on and level of competition, and outside pressures.Generally, a training cycle includes four phases:Active Recovery (AR), a period of low physical and low psycho-social stresses, allowing full recovery from any residual mental or physical fatigue from a previous cycle.Training (TR), a period of high physical and moderate psycho-social stresses, providing the background for later improvements in performances.Build-Up (BU), a period of moderating physical stresses and higher psycho-social stresses, producing increasingly higher levels of performances.Optimum Performance (OP), a period of lower physical stresses and maximum psycho-social stresses, producing the highest levels of performances.
58 (Examples for multi-year, annual, season, & 1-2 week cycles.) TRAINING CYCLESTraining cycles apply to segments of a career (e.g., high school, college, Olympic quadrennial), year, season, 1-2 week periods within a season, and 2-3 day periods within a 1-2 week cycle.The most important training cycle is that of 2-3 day duration, when a hard training bout (high physical stress) is followed by hours of easy activity to allow full recovery and adaptation.The Scientific Principles require that you must train all components of performance, targeted to the specific demands of the event, within each 2-3 day cycle. Differences in the hard workouts in 2-3 day cycles within each 1-2 week cycle allow for training up to and down to the specific demands of a given training event.The only difference in training between 1-2 week cycles, seasonal cycles, & annual cycles is to vary psycho-social stresses.(Examples for multi-year, annual, season, & 1-2 week cycles.)
59 TWO WEEK CYCLE (assuming formal workouts on TThSa) 1 OR 2 WEEK CYCLESTwo week cycles are recommended because they provide a greater breadth of specific endurance training:TWO WEEK CYCLE (assuming formal workouts on TThSa)Day Training Recovery DaysSunday ARMonday ATTuesday 1/2AT, OODWednesday ATThursday 1/2AT, UUDFriday ATSaturday 1/2AT, ODTuesday 1/2AT, UDThursday 1/2AT, TDFriday 1/2 ATSaturday Competition or OOD, OD, TD, UD, or UUD
60 Day Training Recovery Days 1 OR 2 WEEK CYCLESOne week cycles should be used if major competitions are scheduled on consecutive weeks.ONE WEEK CYCLEDay Training Recovery DaysSunday ARMonday ATTuesday 1/2AT, ODWednesday ATThursday 1/2AT, UDFriday 1/2ATSaturday Competition or TD workout
61 DAILY TRAINING ROUTINE To include all necessary development components in each formal training session, include the following steps in a Daily Training Routine, applicable to all track & field events. Comments will indicate how this routine applies to the recommended training program for middle distance and distance runner.DAILY TRAINING ROUTINEWarm-UpGeneral Preparation - AR (MD – 6 minutes; D – 12 minutes)Specific Preparation - Dynamic LeadupsSpecific Event Preparation (included in AR and Dynamic Leadups)Technique Training (included in Dynamic Leadups)Power Training (included in Dynamic Leadups)Specific % Anaerobic – Aerobic Endurance TrainingSpecific Warm-down - AR (MD – 6 minutes; D – 12 minutes)Strength Training - strength training program consistent with rest of trainingInitiation of recovery & adaptation (eat!!, cold bath, massage, static stretching, etc.)
62 (Go to T&F TRAINING, and demonstrate each) REVIEWDESIGNING WORKOUTS:Setting Annual and Seasonal CyclesDate1or 2 Week CycleWeek In CycleTraining Days (MWF, MWSa, TThSa)Training EventPace Objective (OOD, OD, TD, UD, UUD, etc.)Workout TypeTrain By Distances or TimesDAILY WORKOUTONE/TWO WEEK CYCLE(Go to T&F TRAINING, and demonstrate each)
63 EVENT- TIME PROJECTIONS & PACES EXPECTED RESULTS From Speed – Speed Endurance – Specific Endurance Based Training ProgramEVENT- TIME PROJECTIONS & PACES(Go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING and Event-Time Projections and Paces
64 EVENT- TIME PROJECTIONS & PACES Project from 30m up; if run specific time, with proper Speed – Speed Endurance – Specific Endurance Based Training, can run projected timesLook at specific times at 800m, 1500m, 1600m, 3000m, 3200m, 3000 Steeple, 5000, 10k, and Marathon; and see Speed required to achieve these levelsInterpretation of projections:If shorter distance times are better than longer distance times - natural propensity toward speed vs. endurance AND/OR training has been more oriented toward speed vs. endurance. Message - maintain speed training, place greater emphasis on speed endurance and specific endurance training to get better distance timesIf longer distance times are better than shorter distance times - natural propensity toward endurance vs. speed AND/OR training has been more oriented toward endurance vs. speed. Message - maintain specific endurance training; place greater emphasis on speed and speed endurance training to get even better distance times
65 GRAND SUMMARYTO GET MAXIMUM RESULTS FROM YOUR MIDDLE DISTANCE – DISTANCE PROGRAM, USE A SPEED – SPEED ENDURANCE – SPECIFIC ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING PROGRAM.