Presentation on theme: "SPEED-BASED TRAINING for Middle Distance & Distance Runners by Lyle Knudson, Ed.D."— Presentation transcript:
SPEED-BASED TRAINING for Middle Distance & Distance Runners by Lyle Knudson, Ed.D.
WHAT IS SPEED-BASED TRAINING? More accurately titled – “Speed, Speed Endurance, & Specific Endurance Based Training” Training specific to the demands of the event(s)
VS. AEROBIC-ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING As has been applied by most U.S. distance coaches over the past 35+ years. Commonly referred to as the “Pyramid Model” Develop an Aerobic-Endurance “base” via long-slow running, then gradually transition to include training more specific to the event
PROBLEMS WITH Aerobic-Endurance Based Training Through 60’s & early 70’s, when interval training (more like Speed-Based Training) was the primary training method, the U.S. dominated middle distance and distance running in the world Since then, Aerobic-Endurance Based Training has become the dominant approach to U.S. distance training, U.S. middle distance and distance performances, at all levels, have declined over this period. U.S. developed athletes are no longer even a factor in world-class distance running. There is no valid scientific justification for the Aerobic-Endurance Based Training approach.
SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING-ADAPTATION I. Your body adapts to the stresses applied. II. Your body adapts to the SPECIFIC stresses applied. III. Your body will only adapt to unaccustomed stimuli. IV. Adaptation occurs during recovery. V. Your body also adapts to lack of stress. You regress VI. Your body will positively adapt to stress, unless the stresses are too great.
I.YOUR BODY ADAPTS TO THE STRESSES APPLIED You train (i.e., apply stress). Then your body adapts to be able to perform at higher levels.
II.YOUR BODY ADAPTS TO THE SPECIFIC STRESSES APPLIED. For Example: If you properly train “Speed”, you body will adapt to run faster. If you properly train “Speed Endurance”, your body will adapt to run fast longer. If you properly train “Specific Endurance”, your body will adapt to run a specific distance faster. If you train long and slow, your body will adapt to run longer and slower.
III.YOUR BODY WILL ONLY ADAPT TO UNACCUSTOMED STIMULI. For example: To improve “speed”, you must train faster (greater stride length & frequency) than your current maximum speed. To run your objective race distance faster, you must train at paces faster than your current PR in that event. If you only train at paces at or slower than what you’ve already accomplished in your event, your body will not adapt to run faster.
IV.ADAPTATION OCCURS DURING RECOVERY. Full recovery-adaptation from a hard training bout requires hours of very limited activity. High volumes of long-slow running inhibits recovery-adaptation.
V.YOUR BODY ALSO ADAPTS TO LACK OF STRESS. YOU REGRESS. If you don’t train a specific event component (e.g., speed, speed endurance, specific endurance) on a regular basis, you begin to loose it. Negative adaptation of a component generally begins to occur after a hour period of non-training of that component.
VI.YOUR BODY WILL POSITIVELY ADAPT TO STRESS, UNLESS THE STRESSES ARE TOO GREAT. If the stresses are too great, you will not improve, will regress, and/or will become injured or ill. Short-term stresses (e.g., a hard workout) are seldom the cause of injury or illness. Cumulative stress (due to lack of recovery- adaptation between workouts) is generally the cause of lack of improvement, regression of performances, and injuries & illnesses.
CONCLUSION Speed, Speed-Endurance, & Specific- Endurance Based Training NOT Aerobic-Endurance Based Training
REVIEW Scientific Principles as they relate to – SPEED-BASED TRAINING vs. AEROBIC-ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Introduction page)
TO ADHERE TO THE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING- ADAPTATION Use Speed, Speed-Endurance, & Specific Endurance based training. Follow a COMPREHENSIVE and SYSTEMATIC program.
COMPREHENSIVE and SYSTEMATIC TRAINING COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING - Identifying and properly training all affective components of performance in the event(s). SYSTEMATIC TRAINING - For adequate stress and recovery (and therefore maximum positive adaptation) and to avoid negative adaptation (due to lack of stress or over-stress), you must train consistently according to “training cycles”. Training Cycles are time periods of systematically varying physiological and psycho-social stress loads. (will discuss Systematic Training later when tying the total program together)
COMPREHENSIVE TRAINING PHYSICAL COMPONENTS OF PERFORMANCE WHICH APPLY TO THE MIDDLE DISTANCE AND DISTANCE EVENTS: Strength - ability to apply force Strength - ability to apply force Quickness - frequency of repeating a specific movement pattern Quickness - frequency of repeating a specific movement pattern Power = Strength X Quickness = the ability to apply maximum force over a minimum period of time Power = Strength X Quickness = the ability to apply maximum force over a minimum period of time Speed = Power = Stride Length (result of Strength & Technique) X Stride Frequency (result of Quickness & Technique) Speed = Power = Stride Length (result of Strength & Technique) X Stride Frequency (result of Quickness & Technique) Endurance - ability to sustain a movement pattern (movement & intensity) over an interval of time (duration). Four “endurances”, defined by movement duration & intensity: Endurance - ability to sustain a movement pattern (movement & intensity) over an interval of time (duration). Four “endurances”, defined by movement duration & intensity: Aerobic Endurance - long & slow Speed (Anaerobic) Endurance - short & fast Anaerobic Threshold - moderate duration & speed Specific Endurance - (% Anaerobic – Aerobic specific to event; at objective event distance and pace
NOTE The majority of components are Speed, Speed-Endurance, and Specific Endurance related. Aerobic Endurance and Anaerobic Threshold are also important components, and will be included in the total training program discussed later, but are not the dominating factors as practiced in most U.S. distance programs.
SPEED - Justification WHY IS SPEED DEVELOPMENT IMPORTANT TO DISTANCE RUNNERS? The common response is “for the finishing kick”. But in a race of equal runners who know how to maximize performance (i.e., run equal & optimum pace throughout), if you hold back and save/wait for the kick, you’ll be so far behind that a great kick is not going to make up the difference. The primary benefit of Speed is to be able to run more efficiently (i.e., at a faster pace with the same effort) throughout the race. For example, if you’re best 100m time is 15 seconds, you’ll certainly not be able to maintain that pace for a 2:00 800m. But if you can run a m, with proper Specific Endurance Training, you’ll be able to maintain a 15.0 pace throughout to achieve a 2:00.
SHOULD YOU DEVELOP SPEED OR ENDURANCE FIRST? Certainly don’t develop Aerobic-Endurance first, because long-slow running will cause loss of Speed. Some sprint coaches advocate an Inverted Pyramid Model, developing Speed first and then adding Endurance training to extend the Speed over increasingly greater distances. Based on the Scientific Principles, you can and should develop Speed and Endurance simultaneously.
HOW TO IMPROVE SPEED Speed (velocity) = Stride Length X Stride Frequency So to improve Speed, increase Stride Length and Stride Frequency To increase Stride Length, improve Sprint Technique (body positions & movement patterns) and Strength To increase Stride Frequency, improve Sprint Technique and Quickness To increase both Stride Length and Stride Frequency simultaneously, reduce ground contact by improving Sprint Technique and Power
SPRINT TECHNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS Minimize ground contact Run tall Up & down (vs. forward & back) movements of arms and legs relative to body alignment Emphasize front-side (vs. back-side) mechanics Maintain arms at 90 degrees Dorsiflex feet Pawing motion of legs (vs. push in back & brake in front)
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING SPRINT TECHNIQUE, STRIDE LENGTH, AND STRIDE FREQUENCY I. DYNAMIC LEAD-UPS: Exercises which systematically progress from little to optimum ranges of motion, and from slow to maximum speed As part of Warm-Up on formal training days Exercises; 3 X 15-30m each of: Low Knees Sprint Walks Sprint Skips High Knees Build-Ups Accelerations Flyings Start-Throughs
II. SPECIFIC SPEED DEVELOPMENT EXERCISES (conducted at high intensities over short durations) (benefits) Stride Length Stride Frequency Both Stride Length & Stride Frequency ResistedUphillsTowing Against The Wind Long Stick Drill Weighted Vests Strength Training Power Walk Depth Jumps AssistedDownhills Being Towed With The Wind Short Stick Drill Quick Legs Low Knees Power Training Sprint Walks Sprint Skips High Knees Build-UpsAccelerationsFlyingsStart-Throughs
MEASURING/CALCULATING COMPONENTS OF SPEED DEVELOPMENT, #1 Components - Time (per distance), Speed/Velocity, Stride Length, Stride Frequency, Ground Contact (vs. Air Times) Purpose - Determine where you are now, your development needs, and the progress your making in Speed development Required - 30m Fly time, video/DVD recording of 30m Fly, video/DVD player or computer software capable of displaying/counting frame by frame
MEASURING/CALCULATING COMPONENTS OF SPEED DEVELOPMENT, #2 ALGORITHMS FOR COMPUTING THE COMPONENTS: Velocity = Distance/Time = 30m / 30m Fly Time Time for 5 strides = 1/30 X Number of Frames for 5 strides (assuming frame frequency of 30 frames per second) Stride Frequency = 5 / Time For 5 Strides Stride Length = Velocity / Stride Frequency INTERPRETATION; OPTIMUMS: Stride length = 2.35 – 2.50 X trochanter length Stride Frequency = 4.5 – 5.0 strides per second Frames Per Stride < 7 Ground time < 3 frames
REVIEW SPEED DEVELOPMENT (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Development page)
ENDURANCE DefinitionClassifications Physiology Of
DEFINITION OF ENDURANCE Endurance - the ability to sustain a specific movement pattern (e.g., running at an objective pace) over a given interval of time (duration)
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENDURANCE FOUR DIFFERENT INTERDEPENDENT “ENDURANCES”, DEFINED BY MOVEMENT INTENSITY AND DURATION; DETERMINED BY AEROBIC AND/OR ANAEROBIC ENERGY UTILIZATION. Aerobic Endurance - ability to sustain a low intensity movement pattern over a long period of time Anaerobic Endurance (also called Speed Endurance) - ability to sustain a very high movement pattern over a short interval of time Anaerobic Threshold - stress level at which anaerobic stores begin to be utilized to sustain the intensity of the movement pattern Specific Endurance - ability to sustain a desired intensity of movement pattern over an objective duration; requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy
PHYSIOLOGY OF ENDURANCE Protein Synthesis Generation Of Energy
PROTEIN SYNTHESIS THE PRIMARY ADAPTATION MECHANISM IN THE BODY IS THE REGENERATION AND INCREASE OF: Structural Protein - muscle, connective tissue, organs, blood cells, mitochondria, … Enzymatic Protein - enzymes, hormones; which motivate and control cellular function MUST GET THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS INTO THE CELL, AND STIMULATE THE SYNTHESIS OF STRUCTURAL & ENZYMATIC PROTEIN; HOW? Nutrition - adequate protein & complex carbohydrates (vegetables, fruits, grains); limited sugars, starches, and fats Hard Training, specific to event; avoid excessive long-slow distance (reduces growth hormone levels) Adequate recovery-adaptation between hard training bouts; generally hours of easy activity
GENERATION OF ENERGY (ATP) (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic) AEROBIC
ADP + P from CP Muscle Contraction ATP ANAEROBIC
GENERATION OF ENERGY (Aerobic, Anaerobic, Anaerobic Threshold, % Anaerobic-Aerobic) % ANAEROBIC – AEROBIC Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance
% ANAEROBIC – AEROBIC APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGES OF CONTRIBUTION OF ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC FOR MAXIMUM EFFORT PERFORMANCES IN GIVEN EVENTS. Distance Anaerobic % Aerobic % 25m100%0% 50m99%1% 100m98%2% 200m95%5% 400m90%10% 800m70%30% 1500m/1600m50%50% 3000m/3200m30%70% 3000mSt/5000m20%80% 10k10%90% 20k5%95% Marathon (42k)0%100% Brief Introduction; elaboration when discussing Specific Endurance
SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE Definition of Speed Endurance - ability to run at maximum speed longer (60m > 150m); provides increased capacity of anaerobic stores contributing to performance in events requiring both aerobic and anaerobic energy Physiological Adaptations to Speed Endurance Training - increase of structural & enzymatic protein; increase in anaerobic stores (neural impulse, stored ATP, stored CP, buffering/tolerance/diffusion of lactic acid Speed Endurance Duration, Energy Sources, Training, & Recovery: Recovery (between reps; Recovery (between reps; Duration Energy Sources Training (reps) generally 1 min. per 10m) 0-.2 sec. neural impulse + ATP 1 change in motion 5-15 seconds specific to running specific to running 0–5 sec. neural impulse + ATP + CP 10m – 50m 1 – 5 minutes 0–15 sec. neural impulse + ATP + CP + 60m – 150m 6 – 15 minutes buffering of lactic acid buffering of lactic acid
SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE WHERE IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM? Sprinters ( ) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups) and Specific Endurance Workout (day training events = 25, 50, 100, & 200) Middle Distance ( ) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups) and Specific Endurance Workout (day training events = 200, 400) Distance (3000-marathon) – in Warm-Up (dynamic lead-ups)
SPEED (ANAEROBIC) ENDURANCE EXAMPLES OF SPEED ENDURANCE WORKOUTS; FOR SPECIFIC DAY TRAINING EVENTS Day Training Event In Addition to Dynamic Lead-Ups & Speed Development Exercises 25m 8 X 1 arms action; start at 5X seconds 25m 8 X 1 arms action; start at 5X seconds 8 X knee up-downs, each leg; start at 5X seconds 8 X knee up-downs, each leg; start at 5X seconds 8 X vertical jumps from ½ squat position; start at 15X seconds 8 X vertical jumps from ½ squat position; start at 15X seconds 4 X start-through 15m; start at 2X minutes 4 X start-through 15m; start at 2X minutes 4 X flying 15m; start at 2X minutes 4 X flying 15m; start at 2X minutes 50m 1 X flying 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5; 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, 1 min. bet. 50m 1 X flying 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5; 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, 1 min. bet. 100m 1 X start-through 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70; 1,2,3,4,5,6 min. bet. 100m 1 X start-through 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70; 1,2,3,4,5,6 min. bet. 200m 3 X 30m build-ups, on curve; 3 minutes between 200m 3 X 30m build-ups, on curve; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m accelerations, on straight; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m accelerations, on straight; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m start-throughs, on curve; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m start-throughs, on curve; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m flyings, on straight; 3 minutes between 3 X 30m flyings, on straight; 3 minutes between 400m 1 X flying 30, 60, 90, 120, 150; 3, 6, 9, 12 minutes between 400m 1 X flying 30, 60, 90, 120, 150; 3, 6, 9, 12 minutes between
REVIEW SPEED ENDURANCE TRAINING (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING, Speed Endurance Development page)
SPECIFIC ENDURANCE DEFINITION - Specific Endurance is the ability to run at maximum pace throughout a specific event that requires both aerobic and anaerobic energy (i.e., all events 50m through marathon) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC ENERGY AT DURATIONS & INTENSITIES REQUIRING BOTH. (Elaborate over previous introduction)
SPECIFIC ENDURANCE APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGES OF CONTRIBUTION OF ANAEROBIC VS. AEROBIC FOR MAXIMUM EFFORT IN GIVEN EVENTS: IN GIVEN EVENTS: Distance Anaerobic % Aerobic % 25m100%0% 50m99%1% 100m98%2% 200m95%5% 400m90%10% 800m70%30% 1500m/1600m50%50% 3000m/3200m30%70% 3000mSt/5000m20%80% 10k10%90% 20k5%95% Marathon (42k)0%100%
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE The most “specific” endurance training is at the desired intensity (i.e., pace) of the objective event (TD – Training Distance). However, for maximum development, you should systematically train “up to” and “down to” the intensity of the objective event. OOD (Over-Over Distance) and OD (Over Distance) represents lower intensity but greater duration training. UUD (Under-Under distance) and UD (Under Distance) represents higher intensity but lower duration training. The recommended sequence of formal training (MWF, MWSa, or TThSa) over a two week cycle is OOD, UUD, OD, UD, TD, and miscellaneous (i.e., competition, simulated competition, or which of OOD, OD, TD, UD, or UUD is most needed. See next slide for example.
SPECIFIC ENDURANCE TRAINING, EXAMPLE If the selected Training Distance is 800m, the training objective paces would be sequentially at 3000/3200, 200, 1500/1600, 400, and 800 respectively over a two-week cycle. Assuming the formal training days are TThSa, the training objectives and paces would be: Days I Objective Day Training Event Pace SundayMonday TuesdayOOD3000m/3200m Wednesday ThursdayUUD200m Friday SaturdayOD1500m/1600m SundayMonday TuesdayUD400m Wednesday ThursdayTD800m Friday 14.Saturday(Miscellaneous)
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE SELECTING THE OBJECTIVE TRAINING DISTANCE For a given athlete, the Objective Training Distance can vary year to year, from season to season, or within a season. If the Training Distance is to vary, the athletes should train “down to up” in distance; i.e., develop the speed, speed endurance and specific endurance to run at the objective pace at the shorter distance, then develop the specific endurance to extend that pace to the longer distance. If an athlete competes in more than one event (e.g., 800 & 1500), the Training Distance should be the shorter distance.
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE OBJECTIVE PACE OF WORKOUTS So that the body will know specifically what it’s supposed to adapt to, the entire workout (i.e., each rep) should be run only at the objective Day Training Event Pace. Set recoveries commensurate with the number and distance/duration of reps so that the runners will naturally run at the objective Day Training Event pace when trying to run the total workout as fast as possible. The objective workout pace should be faster (approximately 3% faster velocity) than the current PR in the Training Event for that day.
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE WORKOUT VOLUMES The total distance/duration, at the objective Training Event pace, for the workout should be: Training Distance Multiple Total Distance 25m8X200m 50m6X300m 100m5X500m 200m4X800m 400m3X1200m 800m2.5X2000m 1500m/1600m2.25X3600m 3000m/3200m2X6000m 3000mSt/5000m1.75X9000m 10k1.5X15k 15k1.5X22.5k 20k1.5X30k Approaching major competitions (e.g., State HS Meet, National Championships), to assure full recovery/adaptation from any accumulated stresses (physical and/or psycho-social), volumes should be reduced to approximately 75% and 50% the last two weeks prior.
TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE TRAINING TYPES To allow for a variety of training, to accommodate/train other aspects (e.g., psycho-social stresses, race strategies), and yet meet the aforementioned requirements and get the same training effects, workouts should be broken down by Training Types. Example workouts for different Training Types, for a 1500/1600 as the Training Event for the day (therefore, approximately 3600m total distance), are: SAMPLE WORKOUTS BASED ON DISTANCES Training TypeSample Workout Short Intervals36 X 100m, 1 minute recovery between reps Medium Intervals18 X 200m, 2 minutes recovery between reps Long Intervals 9 X 400m, 3 minutes recovery between reps Step-Ups100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800; 4 minutes recovery Step-Downs800, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100; 4 minutes recovery Step Up-Downs100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 500, 400, 300, 200, 100; 4 min. bet. Step Down-Ups500, 400, 300, 200, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500; 3 minutes between Sets-Reps3 X (4 X 300); 2 minutes between reps, 4 minutes between sets SAMPLE WORKOUTS BASED ON TIME Training TypeSample Workout Short Intervals36 X :15, start on 1X minutes Medium Intervals18 X :30, start on 2X minutes Long Intervals 9 X 1:00, start on 4X minutes Step-Ups:15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30, 1:45, 2:00; 4 minutes between Step-Downs2:00, 1:45, 1:30, 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15; 4 minutes between Step Up-Downs:15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15, 1:30, 1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15; 4 min. bet. Step Down-Ups1:15, 1:00, :45, :30, :15, :30, :45, 1:00, 1:15; 3 minutes between Sets-Reps3 X (4 X :45); 2 minutes between reps, 4 minutes between sets
REVIEW TRAINING SPECIFIC ENDURANCE (go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING and Specific Endurance Training page)
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING DEFINITION Anaerobic Threshold (AT) training is continuous running at approximately anaerobic threshold pace, often referred to as “quality distance” or “tempo” running. An individual’s AT pace is most easily estimated by running a known long distance (e.g., 5k for 800/1500 runner, 10k for a 3000 runner, 15k for a 5000 runner, 20k for a marathoner) at near maximum effort, and then computing the pace. Or AT pace is between heart rate for highly trained runners, for younger and less developed individuals.
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING IMPORTANCE OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING While not as important to development as Speed, Speed Endurance, and Specific Endurance, improving the Anaerobic Threshold does allow the athlete to sustain a faster pace without using Anaerobic stores, particularly relevant in the longer distance races.
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING WHERE IN TRAINING PROGRAM? AT training on recovery days 1/2AT on recovery days prior to competitions and as morning runs on formal workout days To allow for full recovery-adaptation, the duration of AT runs must be controlled.
ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD TRAINING AT TRAINING Suggested AT training for various objective Training Distance events is AR-AT-AR, where AR is the time in minutes of Aerobic running. AT is the time in minutes at AT pace. AT TRAINING DURATIONS (minutes) AT TRAINING DURATIONS (minutes) Training Distance AR-AT-AR 1/2AT 800m m/1600m m/3200m mSt/5000m k k - Marathon
AEROBIC ENDURANCE TRAINING DEFINITION - Aerobic Endurance Training (AR) is slow continuous running (generally heart rate for elite runners, for less developed) over longer distances. IMPORTANCE OF AEROBIC TRAINING - While not as important to development as Speed, Speed Endurance, Specific Endurance, and Anaerobic Threshold training, properly applied Aerobic Endurance training aids warm-up & recovery and contributes progressively to performances at greater distances/durations. PROBLEMS WITH EXCESSIVE AEROBIC TRAINING - Because high volumes of long-slow running lowers the natural growth hormones in the body, it detracts from the development of Speed, Speed Endurance, Specific Endurance, and Anaerobic Threshold characteristics, and therefore actually retards development and causes decreases of performances in middle distance and distance events.
AEROBIC ENDURANCE TRAINING AR TRAINING On formal training days, 6 minutes of AR running is recommended as initial warmup for, and final warmdown from, workouts for middle distance runners, 12 minutes each for distance runners. On recovery days, and morning runs on formal training days, athletes will do an additional minutes of AR as a part of their AT training. In addition, Sunday AR runs are suggested as: SUNDAY AR DURATIONS SUNDAY AR DURATIONS Training DistanceAR Duration 800m15 minutes 1500m/1600m30 minutes 3000m/3200m45 minutes 3000mSt/5000m60 minutes 10k75 minutes 20K - Marathon90 minutes
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER SYSTEMATIC TRAINING = TRAINING CYCLES
SYSTEMATIC TRAINING For adequate stress and recovery (and therefore maximum positive adaptation) and to avoid negative adaptation (due to lack of stress or over-stress), you must train consistently according to “training cycles”. Training cycles are time periods of systematically varying physiological and psycho-social stress loads.
MODELING OF TRAINING CYCLES Training cycles can be modeled via a progressive sinusoidal curve as illustrated below. Physical stresses are from the intensity and duration of training. Psycho-social stresses are from the formality of training, emphasis on and level of competition, and outside pressures. Generally, a training cycle includes four phases: a)Active Recovery (AR), a period of low physical and low psycho- social stresses, allowing full recovery from any residual mental or physical fatigue from a previous cycle. b)Training (TR), a period of high physical and moderate psycho- social stresses, providing the background for later improvements in performances. c)Build-Up (BU), a period of moderating physical stresses and higher psycho-social stresses, producing increasingly higher levels of performances. d)Optimum Performance (OP), a period of lower physical stresses and maximum psycho-social stresses, producing the highest levels of performances.
TRAINING CYCLES Training cycles apply to segments of a career (e.g., high school, college, Olympic quadrennial), year, season, 1-2 week periods within a season, and 2-3 day periods within a 1-2 week cycle. The most important training cycle is that of 2-3 day duration, when a hard training bout (high physical stress) is followed by hours of easy activity to allow full recovery and adaptation. The Scientific Principles require that you must train all components of performance, targeted to the specific demands of the event, within each 2-3 day cycle. Differences in the hard workouts in 2-3 day cycles within each 1-2 week cycle allow for training up to and down to the specific demands of a given training event. The only difference in training between 1-2 week cycles, seasonal cycles, & annual cycles is to vary psycho-social stresses. (Examples for multi-year, annual, season, & 1-2 week cycles.)
1 OR 2 WEEK CYCLES Two week cycles are recommended because they provide a greater breadth of specific endurance training: TWO WEEK CYCLE (assuming formal workouts on TThSa) Day Training Recovery Days Day Training Recovery Days 1.SundayAR 2.MondayAT 3.Tuesday1/2AT, OOD 4.WednesdayAT 5.Thursday1/2AT, UUD 6.FridayAT 7.Saturday1/2AT, OD 8.SundayAR 9.MondayAT 10.Tuesday1/2AT, UD 11.WednesdayAT 12.Thursday1/2AT, TD 13.Friday1/2 AT 14.SaturdayCompetition or OOD, OD, TD, UD, or UUD
1 OR 2 WEEK CYCLES One week cycles should be used if major competitions are scheduled on consecutive weeks. ONE WEEK CYCLE Day Training Recovery Days Day Training Recovery Days 1.SundayAR 2.MondayAT 3.Tuesday 1/2AT, OD 4.WednesdayAT 5.Thursday 1/2AT, UD 6.Friday1/2AT 7.Saturday Competition or TD workout
DAILY TRAINING ROUTINE To include all necessary development components in each formal training session, include the following steps in a Daily Training Routine, applicable to all track & field events. Comments will indicate how this routine applies to the recommended training program for middle distance and distance runner. DAILY TRAINING ROUTINE I.Warm-Up A.General Preparation - AR (MD – 6 minutes; D – 12 minutes) B.Specific Preparation - Dynamic Leadups II.Specific Event Preparation (included in AR and Dynamic Leadups) III.Technique Training (included in Dynamic Leadups) IV.Power Training (included in Dynamic Leadups) V.Specific % Anaerobic – Aerobic Endurance Training VI.Specific Warm-down - AR (MD – 6 minutes; D – 12 minutes) VII.Strength Training - strength training program consistent with rest of training VIII.Initiation of recovery & adaptation (eat!!, cold bath, massage, static stretching, etc.)
REVIEW DESIGNING WORKOUTS: Setting Annual and Seasonal Cycles Date 1or 2 Week Cycle Week In Cycle Training Days (MWF, MWSa, TThSa) Training Event Pace Objective (OOD, OD, TD, UD, UUD, etc.) Workout Type Train By Distances or Times DAILY WORKOUT ONE/TWO WEEK CYCLE (Go to T&F TRAINING, and demonstrate each)
EXPECTED RESULTS From Speed – Speed Endurance – Specific Endurance Based Training Program EVENT- TIME PROJECTIONS & PACES (Go to SPEED-BASED TRAINING and Event-Time Projections and Paces
EVENT- TIME PROJECTIONS & PACES Project from 30m up; if run specific time, with proper Speed – Speed Endurance – Specific Endurance Based Training, can run projected times Look at specific times at 800m, 1500m, 1600m, 3000m, 3200m, 3000 Steeple, 5000, 10k, and Marathon; and see Speed required to achieve these levels Interpretation of projections: If shorter distance times are better than longer distance times - natural propensity toward speed vs. endurance AND/OR training has been more oriented toward speed vs. endurance. Message - maintain speed training, place greater emphasis on speed endurance and specific endurance training to get better distance times If longer distance times are better than shorter distance times - natural propensity toward endurance vs. speed AND/OR training has been more oriented toward endurance vs. speed. Message - maintain specific endurance training; place greater emphasis on speed and speed endurance training to get even better distance times
GRAND SUMMARY TO GET MAXIMUM RESULTS FROM YOUR MIDDLE DISTANCE – DISTANCE PROGRAM, USE A SPEED – SPEED ENDURANCE – SPECIFIC ENDURANCE BASED TRAINING PROGRAM.