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Active Lecture Questions C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The two main fluid compartments within the body are _________ and _________. a.plasma; interstitial fluid b.adipose; skeletal muscle c.intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid d.blood; cytoplasm
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The most abundant cation of the ECF is _______ and the most abundant anion in the ECF is _______. a.K + ; HPO 4 2– b.Mg 2+ ; HCO 3 – c.Ca 2+ ; SO 4 2– d.Na + ; Cl –
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following accounts for the most water loss, second only to urine output? a.Insensible perspiration b.Sweating c.Defecation d.Tears
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which is the most potent stimulus for thirst? a.Dry mouth b.An increase in plasma osmolarity c.An increase in blood volume d.The sight of a cold drink
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. You were thirsty and drank a full glass of water only to have your thirst return an hour later. This is because: a.thirst is continuously communicated to the brain. b.the kidneys produced a large volume of urine. c.distension of the stomach temporarily inhibits the thirst center. d.the stomach absorbs water slowly.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. When ADH levels are low, the kidneys produce _________ urine. a.dilute b.concentrated c.a low volume of d.isotonic
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. An overheated marathon runner accepts cups of plain water at each refreshment area. When the race ends, the runner is very disoriented and collapses. What is the best explanation for her condition? a.The runner overexerted herself. b.The runner needs more water because she is dehydrated. c.The runner is suffering from hypotonic hydration and her cell fluids are overdiluted. d.The runner’s ICF is hypotonic to her ECF.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What might be a probable explanation for an intense craving for heavily salted food? a.Diabetes mellitus, which causes excessive urine output b.Addison’s disease, in which insufficient aldosterone is available to reabsorb NaCl from the filtrate c.Diabetes insipidus, which is manifested by hyposecretion of ADH d.Hypersecretion of aldosterone
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following statements best summarizes the relationship between the sodium content of fluids and water movement? a.Water follows salt. b.Salt follows water. c.Water equals salt. d.Water solubilizes salt.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which two hormones are essential for reabsorption of water at the collecting duct? a.Renin and aldosterone b.ADH and aquaporin c.Aldosterone and ADH d.ADH and renin
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood sodium levels are indirectly assessed by __________. a.sodium chemoreceptors b.chloride chemoreceptors c.baroreceptors d.PH receptors
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The _______ contains the largest percentage of water in the body. a.extracellular fluid b.intracellular fluid c.blood plasma d.lymph
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. You would expect blood levels of ANP to increase when __________. a.blood pressure is increased b.blood Na + is elevated c.the walls of the atria are stretched d.all of the above occur
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. A patient suffering from hyperthyroidism may experience heart malfunction. Consequently, this patient must also tightly regulate his potassium intake. Which of the following is the best explanation for why he must carefully watch dietary potassium? a.Even slight changes in K + are not detectable by the heart. b.Both hyper- and hypokalemia can disrupt electrical conduction in the heart. c.The kidney is unable to excrete K + in someone with hyperthyroidism. d.Dietary intake of K + causes hyperthyroidism.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. PTH affects calcium blood levels via which of the following mechanisms? a.PTH stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone. b.PTH stimulates increased Ca 2+ absorption in the intestine. c.PTH stimulates increased Ca 2+ reabsorption by renal tubules. d.All of the above are ways PTH affects calcium blood levels.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is the initial H+ regulatory mechanism in the body? a.Renal excretion b.Chemical buffers c.Brain stem respiratory centers d.Lactic acid production
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following is the major ECF buffer system in the body? a.Bicarbonate buffer system b.Phosphate buffer system c.Protein buffer system d.Sulfate buffer system
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. How might the pH of the intracellular fluid change when cells increase their rate of metabolism? a.The pH would decrease. b.The pH would increase. c.The pH would remain unchanged. d.The pH would change proportionately to the amount of bocarbonate produced.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. If the blood pH lowers, what change would you expect from the respiratory system? a.The respiration rate would increase. b.The respiration rate would decrease. c.The respiration rate would remain unchanged. d.The respiration rate would be erratic.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. In the collecting ducts, bicarbonate ions are generated by_______ cells, while ________ cells secrete bicarbonate ions. a.PCT; DCT b.Type B; Type A c.collecting duct; PCT d.Type A; Type B
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