Presentation on theme: "Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance"— Presentation transcript:
1Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 26Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
2plasma; interstitial fluid adipose; skeletal muscle The two main fluid compartments within the body are _________ and _________.plasma; interstitial fluidadipose; skeletal muscleintracellular fluid; extracellular fluidblood; cytoplasmAnswer: c. intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid
3The most abundant cation of the ECF is _______ and the most abundant anion in the ECF is _______. K+; HPO42–Mg2+; HCO3–Ca2+; SO42–Na+; Cl–Answer: d. Na+; Cl–
4Insensible perspiration Sweating Defecation Tears Which of the following accounts for the most water loss, second only to urine output?Insensible perspirationSweatingDefecationTearsAnswer: a. Insensible perspiration
5Which is the most potent stimulus for thirst? Dry mouthAn increase in plasma osmolarityAn increase in blood volumeThe sight of a cold drinkAnswer: b. An increase in plasma osmolarity
6thirst is continuously communicated to the brain. You were thirsty and drank a full glass of water only to have your thirst return an hour later. This is because:thirst is continuously communicated to the brain.the kidneys produced a large volume of urine.distension of the stomach temporarily inhibits the thirst center.the stomach absorbs water slowly.Answer: c. distension of the stomach temporarily inhibits the thirst center.
7When ADH levels are low, the kidneys produce _________ urine. diluteconcentrateda low volume ofisotonicAnswer: a. dilute
8An overheated marathon runner accepts cups of plain water at each refreshment area. When the race ends, the runner is very disoriented and collapses. What is the best explanation for her condition?The runner overexerted herself.The runner needs more water because she is dehydrated.The runner is suffering from hypotonic hydration and her cell fluids are overdiluted.The runner’s ICF is hypotonic to her ECF.Answer: c. The runner is suffering from hypotonic hydration and her cell fluids are overdiluted.
9Diabetes mellitus, which causes excessive urine output What might be a probable explanation for an intense craving for heavily salted food?Diabetes mellitus, which causes excessive urine outputAddison’s disease, in which insufficient aldosterone is available to reabsorb NaCl from the filtrateDiabetes insipidus, which is manifested by hyposecretion of ADHHypersecretion of aldosteroneAnswer: b. Addison’s disease, in which insufficient aldosterone is available to reabsorb NaCl from the filtrate
10Water solubilizes salt. Which of the following statements best summarizes the relationship between the sodium content of fluids and water movement?Water follows salt.Salt follows water.Water equals salt.Water solubilizes salt.Answer: a. water follows salt
11Which two hormones are essential for reabsorption of water at the collecting duct? Renin and aldosteroneADH and aquaporinAldosterone and ADHADH and reninAnswer: c. Aldosterone and ADH
12Blood sodium levels are indirectly assessed by __________. sodium chemoreceptorschloride chemoreceptorsbaroreceptorsPH receptorsAnswer: c. baroreceptors
13The _______ contains the largest percentage of water in the body. extracellular fluidintracellular fluidblood plasmalymphAnswer: b. intracellular fluid
14You would expect blood levels of ANP to increase when __________. blood pressure is increasedblood Na+ is elevatedthe walls of the atria are stretchedall of the above occurAnswer: d. all of the above occur
15A patient suffering from hyperthyroidism may experience heart malfunction. Consequently, this patient must also tightly regulate his potassium intake. Which of the following is the best explanation for why he must carefully watch dietary potassium?Even slight changes in K+ are not detectable by the heart.Both hyper- and hypokalemia can disrupt electrical conduction in the heart.The kidney is unable to excrete K+ in someone with hyperthyroidism.Dietary intake of K+ causes hyperthyroidism.Answer: b. Both hyper- and hypokalemia can disrupt electrical conduction in the heart.
16PTH stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone. PTH affects calcium blood levels via which of the following mechanisms?PTH stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone.PTH stimulates increased Ca2+ absorption in the intestine.PTH stimulates increased Ca2+ reabsorption by renal tubules.All of the above are ways PTH affects calcium blood levels.Answer: d. All of the above are ways PTH affects calcium blood levels.
17Brain stem respiratory centers Lactic acid production Which of the following is the initial H+ regulatory mechanism in the body?Renal excretionChemical buffersBrain stem respiratory centersLactic acid productionAnswer: b. Chemical buffers
18Which of the following is the major ECF buffer system in the body? Bicarbonate buffer systemPhosphate buffer systemProtein buffer systemSulfate buffer systemAnswer: a. Bicarbonate buffer system
19The pH would remain unchanged. How might the pH of the intracellular fluid change when cells increase their rate of metabolism?The pH would decrease.The pH would increase.The pH would remain unchanged.The pH would change proportionately to the amount of bocarbonate produced.Answer: a. The pH would decrease.
20The respiration rate would increase. If the blood pH lowers, what change would you expect from the respiratory system?The respiration rate would increase.The respiration rate would decrease.The respiration rate would remain unchanged.The respiration rate would be erratic.Answer: a. The respiration rate would increase.
21In the collecting ducts, bicarbonate ions are generated by_______ cells, while ________ cells secrete bicarbonate ions.PCT; DCTType B; Type Acollecting duct; PCTType A; Type BAnswer: d. Type A; Type B