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1 Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model Martin Doerr Center for Cultural Informatics Institute of Computer Science Foundation.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model Martin Doerr Center for Cultural Informatics Institute of Computer Science Foundation."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Modelling Intellectual Processes: The object-orient FRBR Model Martin Doerr Center for Cultural Informatics Institute of Computer Science Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas TPDL 2011 Berlin, Germany September 25, 2011 FRBR OO

2 ICS-FORTH September 25, Europeana Data Model A data model (schema) for the next Europeana release (“Danube”) A collaborative effort of core experts A model to index rather than to document digital material A great challenge to find a minimal but powerful and extensible global model Satisfying many standards and particularly their promoters….

3 ICS-FORTH September 25, Rationale of EDM Precursor: ESE (Europeana Semantic Elements)  used in 2008 version of Europeana  represents lowest common denominator for object metadata convert datasets to Dublin-Core like standard  forces interoperability  major drawback: original metadata is lost EDM goals  preserve original data while still allowing for interoperability Semantic Web representation by Antoine Isaac

4 ICS-FORTH September 25, EDM requirements & principles  Distinction between “provided object” (painting, book, program) and digital representation 2. Distinction between object and metadata record describing an object  Allow for multiple records for same object, containing potentially contradictory statements about an object 4. Support for objects that are composed of other objects 5. A standard metadata format that can be specialized 6. Standard vocabulary format that can be specialized  EDM should be based on existing standards by Antoine Isaac

5 ICS-FORTH September 25, EDM basics OAI ORE for organization of metadata about an object  Requirements 1-4 Dublin Core for metadata representation  Requirements 5 SKOS for vocabulary representation  Requirements 6 key classes from CRM, some DC classes  Requirements 5 key relationships from FRBRoo

6 ICS-FORTH September 25, The class taxonomy in version 5 6 rdfs:Resource Web Resource Physical Thing skos: Concept Information Realization Europeana Object ore: Aggregation Information Resource NonInformation Resource Time-spanAgentEventPlace Europeana Aggregation by Antoine Isaac

7 ICS-FORTH September 25, Property taxonomy (without ESE properties) 7 dc:relation happenedAtore: proxyFor ore: proxyIn dcterms: hasPart hasType ore: aggregates isAbout wasPresentAtoccuredAtisRelatedTo isNext InSequence isSimilarTorealizesdcterms: references hasMet incorporatesis SuccessorOf is DerivativeOf hasViewlandingPageis AnnotationOf is RepresentationOf by Antoine Isaac

8 ICS-FORTH September 25, EDM Major Components A “flat” model of finding aids relationships generalizes over Dublin Core, CRM, OPM…etc.  closes the recall-precision gap between keyword search and “advanced search”  major innovation: “has met” relationship – a formal deduction from events - the historical links in contrast to the aboutness ! A minimal event model ensures representation of historical contexts, spatio-temporal queries and CIDOC CRM compatibility FRBR (OO) reduced to 3 relationships: derivation, continuation, incorporation Reuses the epistemic ORE Aggregation and “proxy” model to solve reification, “who said what” (could also be solved by Named Graphs!)

9 ICS-FORTH September 25, Europeana EDM, a new indexing standard? Agent Concept dcterms:references ens:isRelatedTo ens:hasMet has part ens:was present at ens:happenedAt ens:occurredAt ens:hasType Place Thing TimeSpan Resource Event EuropeanaObject/ “my” Thing ens:was present at ens:hasType dcterms:has part 5 core relationships to query “my thing” by other entities integrated with a minimal event model

10 ICS-FORTH September 25, Example: the necessity of event metadata Preserving and exploiting original data also means being compatible with descriptions beyond simple object level Also crucial for semantic enrichment by Antoine Isaac

11 ICS-FORTH September 25, A flexible model: object and events by Antoine Isaac

12 ICS-FORTH September 25, EDM, a new indexing standard? “My” Information Object crm: shows features of isDerivativeOf isSuccessorOf incorporates 3 additional core relations for information content (from FRBRoo !)

13 The Utitility of FRBR relations: “Blade Runner” Excerpts from Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blade_Runner)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blade_Runner Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick. Seven versions of the film have been shown, for various markets, and as a result of controversial changes made by film executives. A rushed Director's cut was released in 1992 after a strong response to workprint screenings. This, in conjunction with its popularity as a video rental, made it one of the first films released on DVD, resulting in a basic disc with mediocre video and audio quality. In 2007, Warner Bros. released in select theaters and DVD/HD DVD/Blu-ray, the 25th anniversary digitally remastered definitive Final Cut by Scott. Fancher found a cinema treatment by William S. Burroughs for Alan E. Nourse's novel The Bladerunner (1974), entitled Blade Runner (a movie). Blade Runner has numerous and deep similarities to Fritz Lang's Metropolis, including a built up urban environment, in which the wealthy literally live above the workers, dominated by a huge building—the Stadtkrone Tower in Metropolis and the Tyrell Building in Blade Runner. The Blade Runner soundtrack by Vangelis is a dark melodic combination of classic composition and futuristic synthesizers which mirrors the film-noir retro-future envisioned by Ridley Scott. Despite being well received by fans and critically acclaimed and nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and Golden Globe as best original score, and the promise of a soundtrack album from Polydor Records in the end titles of the film, the release of the official soundtrack recording was delayed for over a decade. There are two official releases of the music from Blade Runner. In light of the lack of a release of an album, the New American Orchestra recorded an orchestral adaptation in 1982 which bore little resemblance to the original. Some of the film tracks would in 1989 surface on the compilation Vangelis: Themes, but not until the 1992 release of the Director's Cut version would a substantial amount of the film's score see commercial release. These delays and poor reproductions led to the production of many bootleg recordings over the years. A bootleg tape surfaced in 1982 at science fiction conventions and became popular given the delay of an official release of the original recordings, and in 1993 "Off World Music, Ltd." created a bootleg CD that would prove more comprehensive than Vangelis' official CD in A disc from "Gongo Records" features most of the same material, but with slightly better sound quality. In 2003, two other bootlegs surfaced, the "Esper Edition," closely preceded by "Los Angeles: November 2019". The double disc "Esper Edition" combined tracks from the official release, the Gongo boot and the film itself. Finally "2019" provided a single disc compilation almost wholly consisting of ambient sound from the film, padded out with some sounds from the Westwood game Blade Runner. A set with 3 CDs of Blade Runner-related Vangelis music was released on December 10, Titled Blade Runner Trilogy, the first CD contains the same tracks as the 1994 official soundtrack release, the 2nd CD contains previously unreleased music from the movie, and the 3rd CD is all newly composed music from Vangelis, inspired by, and in the spirit of the movie

14 Film: “(in Venezuela):”El cazador implacable” RIO Film: “San Diego Sneak Preview” 1982 RIO is successor of is identified by is derivative of Book: “Blade Runner screenplay” H.Fancher&D.Peoples 1982 RIO Title: “Blade Runner” Appellation Title: “Blade Runner (The movie)” Appellation Title: “The Blade Runner” Appellation Film: “Blade Runner” R.Scott 1982 RIO Film: “International Cut” 1982 RIO Film: “US Theatrical Version”1982 RIO is derivative of (is version) is derivative of Book: “Blade Runner (The movie)” W.Burroughs 1979 RIO is successor of incorporates is identified by Book: “The Blade Runner” A.Nourse 1974 RIO is derivative of Videogame: “Blade Runner” Westwood Studios 1997 DPO is identified by is derivative of Book: “Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night”K.Jeter 1996 RIO Book: “Blade Runner 2: The edge..” K.Jeter 1995 RIO Book: “Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon” K.Jeter 2000 RIO Book: “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” P.Dick 1968 RIO Film: “US Broadcast Version”1986 RIO Film: “Director’s Cut” 1992 RIO Film: “The Final Cut” 2007 RIO Reprint: “Blade Runner (Do androids..)”P.Dick RIO is derivative of Videogame: “Blade Runner” CRL Group P LC 1985 DPO Documentary: “On the edge..”NoblesGate Ltd 2000 RIO Documentary: “Future Shocks” TV Ontario 2003 RIO is about Film: “Metropolis” F.Lang 1927 RIO Tv series: “Total Recall 2070” Art Monterastelli 1999 RIO is similar to Comic: A Marvel.. Blade Runner” A.Goodwin 1982 RIO is derivative of is similar to incorporates Documentary: “All our Variant Futures” P.Prischman 2007 RIO Documentary: “Dangerous Days” C.Lauzirika 2007 DPO is about Film: (in Portugal):”Perigo Iminente” RIO is derivative of (is translation of) incorporates cd: “unreleased Blade Runner music”1982 DRO cd: “new Vangelis music” Vangelis 2007 DRO Film score: “Blade Runner” New American Orchestra 1982 RIO is derivative of Film score: “Blade RunnerTrilogy”Vangelis 2007 DPO unreleased Film Score: “Blade Runner” Vangelis 1982 RIO has part Soundtrack: “Blade Runner” Vangelis 1982 RIO incorporates bootleg cd: “bootleg Blade Runner recording” Off World Music Ltd 1993 DRO Film score: “Blade Runner” Vangelis 1994 RIO incorporates has part DVD: “Blade Runner” (The Final Cut) 2007 DRO incorporates The complete picture under EDM

15 Title: “…” Appellation Title: “…” Appellation Title: “…” Appellation Title: “…” Appellation Film: “(in Venezuela):”El cazador implacable” RIO Film: “San Diego Sneak Preview” 1982 RIO Book: “Blade Runner screenplay” H.Fancher&D.Peoples 1982 RIO Title: “Blade Runner International Cut” Appellation Film: “International Cut” 1982 RIO Film: “US Theatrical Version”1982 RIO Videogame: “Blade Runner” Westwood Studios 1997 DPO Film: “US Broadcast Version”1986 RIO Film: “Director’s Cut” 1992 RIO Film: “The Final Cut” 2007 RIO Videogame: “Blade Runner” CRL Group P LC 1985 DPO Documentary: “On the edge..”NoblesGate Ltd 2000 RIO Documentary: “Future Shocks” TV Ontario 2003 RIO is about Film: “Metropolis” F.Lang 1927 RIO Tv series: “Total Recall 2070” Art Monterastelli 1999 RIO Comic: A Marvel.. Blade Runner” A.Goodwin 1982 RIO is version Documentary: “All our Variant Futures” P.Prischman 2007 RIO Film: (in Portugal):”Perigo Iminente” RIO is version Soundtrack: “Blade Runner” Vangelis 1982 RIO has part is version The Chaos of documenting and relating only products: even without the book and sound products!

16 ICS-FORTH September 25, ORE Model ore:Aggregation ore:Proxy rdfs:Resource ore:aggregates ore:proxyFor ore:AggregatedResource ore:proxyIn ore:Proxy : “description” semantics (OIO ontology!) Good for archival descriptions: One thing in multiple hierarchies

17 ICS-FORTH September 25, Multiple aggregations = multiple providers by Antoine Isaac

18 ICS-FORTH September 25, Further Properties Berlin, Jan , Europeana V1.0 WP3 Meeting rdfs:Resource is AnnotationOf Europeana Object domain range WebResource landing Page Europeana Aggregation domain range rdfs:Resource has View ore: Aggregation domain range

19 ICS-FORTH September 25, Source view of Europeana EDM classes E4 Period ens:Event E18 Physical Thing ens:Pysical Thing E89 Propositional Object ens:InformationResource E55 Type SKOS:Concept E39 Actor ens:Agent ens:NonInformationResource E52 Time-Span ens:Time-Span E53 Place ens:Place ens:WebResourceens:EuropeanaObject ens:EuropeanaAggregation ore:Aggregationdcmitype:Collection ore:Proxy rdfs:Resource Exx Class : abstract CRM class ens:Class : abstract EDM class Exx Class : concrete CRM class ens:Class : concrete EDM class Exx Class ens:Class ore:Class : concrete ORE class : concrete CRM&EDM class

20 ICS-FORTH September 25, How to Integrate ORE? E89 Propositional Object ens:InformationResource ens:NonInformationResource ens:WebResource ens:EuropeanaObject ens:EuropeanaAggregation ore:Aggregation ore:Proxy rdfs:Resource ore:aggregates ore:proxyFor ore:AggregatedResource ore:proxyIn AggregatedResource: Anything that is related by my aggregation, and not by a “nature” ??? OR Only AggregatedResources can be aggregated??? Bad model!!

21 ICS-FORTH September 25, A better ORE Model? E89 Propositional Object ens:InformationResource ens:NonInformationResource ens:WebResource ens:EuropeanaObject ens:EuropeanaAggregation ore:Aggregation ore:Proxy rdfs:Resource ore:aggregates ore:proxyFor ore:AggregatedResource ore:proxyIn Aggregations and Proxies can be aggregated, Proxies point to anything?

22 ICS-FORTH September 25, ore:AggregatedResource A relaxed ORE Model? E89 Propositional Object ens:InformationResource ens:NonInformationResource ens:WebResource ens:EuropeanaObject ens:EuropeanaAggregation ore:Aggregation ore:Proxy rdfs:Resource ore:aggregates ore:proxyFor ore:proxyIn AggregatedResource a term for anything?

23 ICS-FORTH September 25, Integrated Europeana EDM Class Diagram E2 Temporal Entity E4 Period ens:Event E3 Condition State E5 Event E70 Thing E72 Legal Object E71 Man-Made Thing E18 Physical Thing ens:Pysical Thing E26 Physical Feature E19Physical Object E24 Physical M-M Thing E28 Conceptual Object E89 Propositional Object ens:InformationResource E90 Symbolic Object E55 Type SKOS:Concept E39 Actor ens:Agent E74 Group ens:NonInformationResource E52 Time-Span ens:Time-Span E53 Place ens:Place E1 CRM Entity E77 Persistent Item Exx Class : abstract CRM class ens:Class : abstract EDM class Exx Class : concrete CRM class ens:Class : concrete EDM class Exx Class ens:Class : concrete CRM&EDM class Fxx Class : concrete FRBRoo class ore:AggregatedResource rdf:Resource E21 Person E73 Information Object ore:Proxy F2 Expression ore:Class : concrete ORE class new IsA links for integration

24 ICS-FORTH September 25, Europeana EDM Class Diagram cont’d Exx Class : abstract CRM class ens:Class : abstract EDM class Exx Class : concrete CRM class ens:Class : concrete EDM class Exx Class ens:Class : concrete CRM&EDM class Fxx Class : concrete FRBRoo class ens:WebResourceens:EuropeanaObject ens:EuropeanaAggregation ore:Aggregationdcmitype:Collection F2 ExpressionF22 Self Contained Expression F26 Recording F24 Publication Expression F25 Performance Plan F23 Expression Fragment ore:Proxy

25 ICS-FORTH September 25, Current status EDM Definitions v5.2 EDM Primer – 05/08/10 (fitting v5.2)

26 ICS-FORTH September 25, Conclusions The Europeana EDM model is a great generalization over virtually all existing metadata formats It satisfies particularly poor (as most!) metadata and automatic metadata enrichment It is not suited for documentation! It is extensible:  Do not manually reduce your metadata!  Map your metadata formats to adequate richer standards and create automatically EDM views for global indexing and querying!


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