2Topic A general idea that a piece of literature addresses. Topics are usually universal and allow the reader to relate to.Topics can be one wordA novel may address several topics.
3Topics in the Kite Runner FriendshipBrotherhoodLoyaltyFathers and sonsLies and SecretsGuilt and RedemptionCourageAtonementChoicesFaithHuman NatureClass differencesThe roles of womenGood Vs EvilInhumanityValue and moralsThe role of a MotherHonour
4Theme A message the literature provides the reader Usually relates to the topics presentedMust look at the piece of literature as a whole to determine the themeCannot be one wordTheme must be a concept that is fully developedThemes are often universalThemes allow the reader to have greater understanding of the text
5Determining ThemeTo determine theme look at the literature in it’s entiretyAsk questions about the specific topicsFind evidence that supports the ideaPhrase the theme in a sentence or series of sentence
6Determining Theme Topic Question Evidence Theme Example: Lies How doe lies impact the lives of the characters?Amir does not know Hassan is his brother and treats him badly throughout his youth. He greatly regrets this and his guilt over this treatment of Hassan. This guilt shapes his lifeTheme– Lies told by others can shape a person’s decisions and life.
7Questions to Consider (determining theme in the Kite Runner) Topic: GuiltHow does Amir demonstrate his guilt?How does guilt shape Amir’s life?How does Baba demonstrate his guilt?How does guilt shape Baba’s life?What impact can guilt have?
8Questions to Consider (determining theme in the Kite Runner) Topic: ChoiceHow do the choices of others influence Amir?How do the choices of others influence Hassan?Can one choice shape a person’s life? (Amir, Baba, Soraya)
9Questions to Consider (determining theme in the Kite Runner) Topic: Father and Son RelationshipsRahim Khan and Baba both act as father figures to Amir. How do each of these men influence Amir?How do fathers influence sons?Which of these men are better father figures? Why?
10Questions to Consider (determining theme in the Kite Runner) Topic: HonourWhat makes a man honourable?Who is more honourable: Baba, Amir, Hassan? Why?How does honour shape a persons choices?
11ThemeRemember when determining theme ask yourself questions about the topicDig deepTheme should demonstrate depth, understanding and express a complex idea!
12Comparing and Contrasting Compare: to look for the similarities between two things (objects, characters, ideas, places, etc) and find similar meaning or arrive at a specific conclusion.Contrast: to look for the differences between two things (objects, characters, ideas, places, etc) and find similar meaning or arrive at a specific conclusion.
13Comparing and Contrasting When look at two things determine what they have in common and how they differThen select a conclusionPhrase that conclusion as an overarching point– not as a statement of evaluation or comparison.
14Comparing and Contrasting DogsNeeds constant care (feeding, walking, cleaning, etc)Very social animalShedsExpensesNo independenceCatsNeeds care (feeding), but has some self reliance (no need to walk. Cleaning)Less social, likes to be selfShedsExpensesIndependence
15Comparing and Contrasting Not an Overarching point:Cats are better than dogs because they allow for the owner to have an easier lifestyle.Overarching point:A pet owner must select the appropriate pet based on his/her lifestyle.
16Keep in mindNext week we will be comparing and contrasting various characters in The Kite Runner to demonstrate theme.