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Junior Cert Revision 2 By Rev. Well Cells Animal Plant Nucleus Vacuole Cell Wall Chloroplasts -contain Chlorophyll for photosynthesis Cell Membrane.

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Presentation on theme: "Junior Cert Revision 2 By Rev. Well Cells Animal Plant Nucleus Vacuole Cell Wall Chloroplasts -contain Chlorophyll for photosynthesis Cell Membrane."— Presentation transcript:


2 Junior Cert Revision 2 By Rev. Well

3 Cells Animal Plant Nucleus Vacuole Cell Wall Chloroplasts -contain Chlorophyll for photosynthesis Cell Membrane

4 Food Groups Proteins Vitamins Minerals Fats and Oils Carbohydrates

5 Digestion -Breaking food down into smaller pieces Teeth begin process of breaking down food Food Long chains of sugar called Starch Saliva contains an ENZYME AMYLASE Shorter sugars that start to be digested

6 Can you remember? What are those three functions of a skeleton? Support Protection Movement Hold us upright Ribs protect the lungs heart etc Anchor for the muscles

7 Connective Tissue Tendon Muscle to bone Ligament bone connected to bone Cartilage protects end of bone

8 Photosynthesis water Carbon dioxide Energy from sunlight, with chlorophyll as a catalyst, is used to combine CO 2 and H 2 O to form glucose and release O 2 chlorophyll oxygen glucose Water + Carbon Dioxide  Glucose + Oxygen Sunlight Chlorophyll

9 Proving Photosynthesis

10 Phototropism The shoots (aerial parts) of a plant grow towards light due to phototropism. Phototropism allows shoots to get more light and make more food. Phototropism is the change in growth of a plant in response to light.

11 Water goes up the Xylem From root To leaf then Transpire

12 Sugar made In the leaf Goes down The Phloem

13 Properties of an Acid  Tastes sour  Turns blue litmus paper red  Has a pH of less than 7  Lemon juice and vinegar are good examples. ACID

14 Properties of a Base  Turns litmus paper blue  Has a pH greater than 7  taste bitter and have a slippery feel  Bases that are soluble (dissolve in water) are called alkalis Most hand soaps and drain cleaners are bases

15 p H A measure of how acidic something is


17 T h e p H S c a l e A N e u t r a l s o l u t i o n h a s a p H o f 7. A n A c i d i c s o l u t i o n h a s a p H b e l o w 7. A B a s i c s o l u t i o n h a s a p H a b o v e 7. A N e u t r a l s o l u t i o n h a s a p H o f 7. A n A c i d i c s o l u t i o n h a s a p H b e l o w 7. A B a s i c s o l u t i o n h a s a p H a b o v e 7.

18 Indicators These are chemicals that change colour in the presence of an acid or a base. We get them from Plants.

19 Magnetic Field `The area around a magnet where you can feel a magnetic force

20 Electromagnet A soft iron rod has no magnetic field When current flows in the wire the soft iron becomes magnetised so a magnetic field is detected by the plotting compasses.

21 Positive and Negative Charge Same charges repel

22 Positive and Negative Charge Unlike charges attract

23 Conductors and Insulators A conductor is a substance through which electric charge flows readily. An insulator is a substance that strongly resists the flow of electric charge. Conductor insulator

24 Effect of Van De Graaf Hair is pushed apart as all the electrons on the hair repel each other.

25 Light on cards goes through if the cards are lined up. This also proves light travels in straight lines

26 Reflection Incident ray Normal Reflected ray Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Flat Mirror Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection

27 Refraction Fisherman use a trident as light is bent at the surface The fisherman sees the fish and tries to spear it

28 Focal Point Lenses Two types of lenses Converging LensDiverging Lens

29 Dispersion Breaking up of white light into it’s colours

30 Primary and secondary colours

31 Parts of a Flowering Plant Male Parts AntherFilament Together called the STAMEN Female Parts Stigma Style Ovule Ovary Together called the CARPEL

32 Pollen Sexual reproduction is where two different cells meet GAMETES Sex cells are called GAMETES Pollen is the male gamete The female gamete is the EGG When the pollen and egg meet this is called FERTILISATION

33 Water Treatment Screening - Clean water passes through the screen and large objects do not Sedimentation - Aluminium Sulphate is added allowed to settle. Filtration – passes through sand Add chlorine to kill bacteria and flourine

34 Hard and soft water Add soap and mix Add Soap solution Hard Water Few Bubbles Oily scum Soft Water Lots of Bubbles

35 Where hard water comes from Acid Rain Limestone Water dissolves the limestone (Calcium Carbonate) and the calcium ions make the water hard Water that runs off straight to rivers and lakes is soft water

36 Advantages and Disadvantages of Hard and Soft Water AdvantageDisadvantage Hard Good for Heart and Beer Scale in pipes Soft Good for washing clothes Girl children

37 Revise for Xmas exam If you are reading this in May bad luck and keep going

38 Thick muscular walls Divided into 4 chambers Right side pumps blood to lungs Left side pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs to ALL parts of body

39 The heart has four major blood vessels VENA CAVA PULMONARY VEIN AORTA PULMONARY Artery VENA CAVA From body To body From lungs To lungs

40 All Blood Vessels Artery Thick Walls Blood from heart Veins Thin walls Blood to heart Contain valves Capillaries Very thin walls and tube Carry oxygen and food to cells


42 Blood Summary TypeFunctionAppearance Plasma Carries glucose, protein and waste. Clear Liquid Red Blood Cell Carry Oxygen to cells in Haemoglobin Red or blue White Blood Cell Prevent Disease and attack invaders Many different cells Platelets Clot the bloodFragments of cells

43 Excretion- removing waste products from the body SkinSkin - Sweat KidneysKidneys-Urine LungsLungs-Carbon Dioxide + Water

44 bladder urethra renal vein carries blood from kidney renal artery carries blood to kidneykidney filters blood to remove urea ureter transports urine to bladder bladder stores urine urethra releases urine

45 Sound is Energy Sound is caused by the movement of the medium it is travelling in Anything that vibrates makes sound Compressions in the medium Loudspeaker

46 Sound in Space Sound needs a medium (Air, String and even water) We can prove this by sucking all the air out of a jar with an electric bell inside When we have sucked out all the air from the jar we can not hear the electric bell Glass bell jar Vacuum Electric Bell

47 Echo A reflected sound wave If sound takes 2s the get to the cliff and return and sound travels at 340m/s. Distance = Speed x time=340x2 =680m, but how far away is the cliff face?

48 1) Amplitude – this is height of the wave. 2) Wavelength ( ) – this is the distance between two corresponding points on the wave and is measured in metres: 3) Frequency – this is how many waves pass by every second and is measured in Hertz (Hz) Crest Trough

49 Ecology… Study of the relationship between plants and animals and their environment

50 Levels of organization - Terms Organism – living thing Population – one species live in one place at one time Community – All populations (diff. species) that live in a HABITAT.

51 Connections Primary Producer Primary Consumer Secondary Consumer Top of the food chain

52 Carnivore eats other animals Herbivore eats plants Omnivore eats plants and animals

53 Inside of the eye pupil iris lens optic nerve retina Ciliary muscle cornea

54 Choose a name from the list above to match the functions in the table 1. contains sensory cells which detect images 2. contracts and relaxes to change the shape of the lens 3. allows light into the eye and refracts (bends) the rays 4. brings messages to brain about what we are seeing 5. allows light into the inside of the eye 6. contracts and relaxes to change the size of the pupil 7. focuses a clear image on the retina retina ciliary muscle cornea optic nerve pupil iris lens

55 how the taste buds gather information humans detect four tastes: sweet, sour, salt and bitter sensory nerves bring messages to the brain

56 Distance, Speed and Time Speed = distance (in metres) time (in seconds) D TS 1)Dave walks 200 metres in 40 seconds. What is his speed? 2)Laura covers 2km in 1,000 seconds. What is her speed? 3)How long would it take to run 100 metres if you run at 10m/s? 4)Steve travels at 50m/s for 20s. How far does he go? 5)Susan drives her car at about 40m/s (136km/hr or 85mph). How long does it take her to drive 20km?

57 Speed vs. Velocity Speed is simply how fast you are travelling… Velocity is “speed in a given direction”… This car is travelling at a speed of 20m/s This car is travelling at a velocity of 20m/s east

58 Velocity-Time Graphs V t 1/.Constant Acceleration V t 2/.Constant Velocity V t 3/.Deceleration

59 Velocity-time graphs 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 4050 Velocity m/s T/s 1)Upwards line = Constant Acceleration 2) Horizontal line = Constant Velocity 3) Shallow line = Less Acceleration 4) Downward line = Deceleration

60 Friction Friction is the force that opposes motion of a body when it is in contact with another. Friction happens when 2 bodies are in contact. Lubrication reduces friction

61 Adaptation is the development of special characteristics by plants or animals to suit a particular environment. Adaptation to environment


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