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Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception Chapter 3

2 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensation vs. Perception Sensation The experience of sensory stimulation Perception The process of creating meaningful patterns from raw sensory information

3 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Nature of Sensation

4 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Basic Process Receptor cells Specialized cells that respond to a particular type of energy Doctrine of specific nerve energies One-to-one relationship between stimulation of a specific nerve and the resulting sensory experience For example, applying pressure with your finger to your eye results in a visual experience

5 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Thresholds Absolute threshold The minimum amount of energy that can be detected 50% of the time

6 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Absolute Thresholds Taste: 1 gram (.0356 ounce) of table salt in 500 liters (529 quarts) of water Smell: 1 drop of perfume diffused throughout a three-room apartment Touch: the wing of a bee falling on your cheek from a height of 1cm (.39 inch) Hearing: the tick of a watch from 6 meters (20 feet) in very quiet conditions Vision: a candle flame seen from 50km (30 miles) on a clear, dark night

7 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Thresholds Sensory adaptation An adjustment of the senses to the level of stimulation they are receiving Difference threshold The smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time Also called the just noticeable difference

8 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sensory Thresholds Weber’s Law States that the difference threshold is a constant proportion of the specific stimulus Senses vary in their sensitivity to changes in stimulation

9 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Subliminal Perception The notion that we may respond to stimuli that are below our level of awareness Research shows that the effect only occurs in controlled laboratory studies Research outside the laboratory shows no significant effect of subliminal information

10 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Extrasensory Perception Refers to extraordinary perception such as Clairvoyance – awareness of an unknown object or event Telepathy – knowledge of someone else’s thoughts or feelings Precognition – foreknowledge of future events Research has been unable to conclusively demonstrate the existence of ESP

11 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Vision

12 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Visual System Cornea Transparent protective coating over the front of the eye Pupil Small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye Iris Colored part of the eye

13 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Visual System Lens Focuses light onto the retina Retina Lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light Fovea Center of the visual field

14 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Receptor Cells Cells in the retina that are sensitive to light Visual receptors are called rods and cones

15 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Receptor Cells Rods About 120 million rods Respond to light and dark Very sensitive to light Provide our night vision Cones About 8 million cones Respond to color as well as light and dark Work best in bright light Found mainly in the fovea

16 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Receptor Cells Bipolar cells Receive input from receptor cells Ganglion cells Receive input from bipolar cells Blind spot Area where axons of ganglion cells leave the eye

17 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Adaptation Dark adaptation Increased sensitivity of rods and cones in darkness Light adaptation Decreased sensitivity of rods and cones in bright light Afterimage Sense experience that occurs after a visual stimulus has been removed

18 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall From Eye to Brain Optic nerve Made up of axons of ganglion cells carries neural messages from each eye to brain Optic chiasm Point where part of each optic nerve crosses to the other side of the brain

19 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Color Vision Properties of color Hue – refers to colors such as red and green Saturation – refers to the vividness of a hue Brightness – the nearness of a color to white

20 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Theories of Color Vision Additive color mixing Mixing of lights of different hues Lights, T.V., computer monitors (RGB) Subtractive color mixing Mixing pigments, e.g., paints

21 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic theory Three different types of cones Red Green Blue-violet Experience of color is the result of mixing of the signals from these receptors Can account for some types of colorblindness

22 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Forms of Colorblindness Approximately 10% of men and 1% of women have some form of colorblindness Dichromats People who are blind to either red-green or blue- yellow Monochromats People who see no color at all, only shades of light and dark

23 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Theories of Color Vision Trichromatic theory cannot explain all aspects of color vision People with normal vision cannot see “reddish-green” or “yellowish-blue” Color afterimages

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26 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Theories of Color Vision Opponent-process theory Three pairs of color receptors Yellow-blue Red-green Black-white Members of each pair work in opposition Can explain color afterimages Both theories of color vision are valid

27 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Color Vision in Other Species Other species see colors differently than humans Most other mammals are dichromats Rodents tend to be monochromats, as are owls who have only rods Bees can see ultraviolet light

28 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Hearing

29 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sound Sound waves Changes in pressure caused by molecules of air moving Frequency Number of cycles per second in a wave, measured in Hertz (Hz) Frequency determines pitch

30 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Sound Amplitude Magnitude (height) of sound wave Determines loudness, measured in decibels (dB) Overtones Multiples of the basic tone Timbre Quality of texture of sound

31 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Ear Eardrum Middle ear Contains three small bones; the hammer, anvil, and stirrup These bones relay and amplify the incoming sound waves

32 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Ear Oval window Membrane between middle ear and inner ear Cochlea Part of inner ear containing fluid that vibrates This causes the basilar membrane to vibrate

33 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Ear Basilar membrane Membrane in the cochlea which contains receptor cells, called hair cells Auditory nerve Connection from ear to brain Provides information to both sides of brain

34 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Theories of Hearing Place theory Pitch is determined by location of vibration along the basilar membrane Frequency theory Pitch is determined by frequency hair cells produce action potentials Volley Principle Pattern of sequential firing determines pitch

35 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Hearing Disorders About 28 million people have some form of hearing damage in the U.S. Can be caused by Injury Infections Explosions Long-term exposure to loud noises

36 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Other Senses

37 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Smell Detecting common odors Odorant binding protein is released and attached to incoming molecules These molecules then activate receptors in the olfactory epithelium Axons from those receptors project directly to the olfactory bulb

38 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Smell Women have a better sense of smell than men Anosmia Complete loss of the ability to smell

39 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Smell Pheromones Used by animals as a form of communication Provides information about identity Also provides information about sexual receptivity Pheromones stimulate the vomeronasal organ (VNO) Information from the VNO is sent to a special part of the olfactory bulb used for pheromonal communication

40 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Taste Four basic tastes Sweet Salty Sour Bitter Recent discovery of fifth taste Umami

41 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Taste Receptor cells are located in taste buds Taste buds are located in papillae on the tongue Chemicals dissolve in saliva and activate receptors

42 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Other Senses

43 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Kinesthetic Senses Kinesthetic senses provide information about speed and direction of movement Stretch receptors sense muscle stretch and contraction Golgi tendon organs sense movement of tendons

44 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Vestibular Senses Vestibular senses provide information about equilibrium and body position Fluid moves in two vestibular sacs Vestibular organs are also responsible for motion sickness Motion sickness may be caused by discrepancies between visual information and vestibular sensation

45 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall The Skin Senses Skin is the largest sense organ There are receptors for pressure, temperature, and pain Touch appears to be important not just as a source of information, but as a way to bond with others

46 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Pain Serves as a warning about injury or other problem Large individual differences in pain perception Gate control theory Neurological “gate” in spinal cord which controls transmission of pain to brain

47 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Pain Biopsychosocial theory Holds that pain involves not just physical stimulus, but psychological and social factors as well Placebo effect Shows that when a person believes a medication reduces pain, their pain is often reduced even though no medication was given Pain relief is likely the result of endorphin release

48 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Pain Alternative approaches Hypnosis Self-hypnosis Accupuncture

49 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perception

50 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perceptual Organization Figure-ground We perceive a foreground object (figure) against a background (ground) Animals may look like the background they inhabit as a way of destroying figure- ground distinction

51 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perceptual Organization Other principles of organization Proximity Similarity Closure Continuity

52 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perceptual Organization Perceptual Constancy Our tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changing sensory information Size constancy Shape constancy Brightness constancy Color constancy

53 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perception of Distance and Depth Monocular cues – those that require only one eye Aerial perspective Texture gradient Linear perspective Motion parallax Superposition

54 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perception of Distance and Depth Binocular cues – those that require both eyes Retinal disparity Convergence

55 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Localizing Sounds We use both monaural and binaural cues Loudness Louder sounds are perceived as being closer Time of arrival Sounds will arrive at one ear sooner than the other This helps determine direction of the sound

56 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Perception of Movement Apparent movement Illusion that still objects are moving Autokinetic illusion Perceived motion of a single object Stroboscopic motion Created by a rapid series of still pictures Phi phenomenon Apparent motion created by lights flashing in sequence

57 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Visual Illusions Occur because of misleading cues in the stimulus Gives rise to false perceptions

58 Psychology: An Introduction Charles A. Morris & Albert A. Maisto © 2005 Prentice Hall Individual Differences and Culture in Perception Motivation Our desires or needs shape our current perceptions Values Expectations Cognitive Style Experience and Culture Personality


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