Presentation on theme: "How To Perform a Physical Exam. The physical exam is an essential part of a doctor’s visit. Always make sure you get the permission of the patient before."— Presentation transcript:
How To Perform a Physical Exam
The physical exam is an essential part of a doctor’s visit. Always make sure you get the permission of the patient before you begin the exam.
History The patient will mention complaints or concerns about their health. You ask the patient about lifestyle behaviors like smoking, excessive alcohol use, sexual health, diet, and exercise. You will also check the patient’s vaccination status and update their personal and family medical history.
Vital Signs These are some vital signs: Blood pressure: Less than 120 over 80 is a normal blood pressure. Doctors define high blood pressure (hypertension) as 140 over 90 or higher. Heart rate: Values between 60 and 100 are considered normal. Many healthy people have heart rates slower than 60, however. Respiration rate: From 12 to 16 breaths per minute is normal for a healthy adult. Breathing more than 20 times per minute can suggest heart or lung problems. Temperature: 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit is the average, but healthy people can have resting temperatures slightly higher or lower.
General Appearance You will gather a large amount of information about the patient’s health just by watching and talking with them. How is their memory and mental quickness? Does their skin appear healthy? Can he/she easily stand and walk?
Heart Exam Listen to the heart with a stethoscope to detect an irregular heartbeat, a heart murmur, or other clues to heart disease. ysdx/heart/demo.html
Lung Exam Use a stethoscope, listen for crackles, wheezes, or decreased breath sounds. These and other sounds are clues to the presence of heart or lung disease. waveform?coursecaseorder=1&courseid=20 1
HEENT Exam (head, ears, eyes, nose and mouth) Opening up and saying "ah" shows off your throat and tonsils. The quality of your teeth and gums also provides information about your overall health.
HEENT-Eyes Eye exam: Use a ophthalmoscope to look into the eye Pupils will contract when light hits the eyes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vA gGeLJ37iU
HEENT-Ears Ear exam: Use Otoscope to look into the ears. You want to check for redness (possible infection) and fluid (sinusitis).
HEENT- Nose Nose: Use the Otoscope to look into the nose and check for any redness or defects
Abdominal Exam Exam the stomach by tapping on the abdomen to detect liver size and presence of abdominal fluid, listening for bowel sounds with a stethoscope, and palpating for tenderness.
Neurological Exam Nerves, muscle strength, reflexes, balance, and mental state may be assessed Cranial nerves can be observed with various facial and body movements
Neurological Exam- Reflexes Reflexes: when a muscle tendon is tapped briskly, the muscle immediately contracts Reflexes can be obtained from the Biceps, Brachioradialis, Triceps, patella and Achilles tendon Reflex graded +1 to is normal https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =7h5o-FJUDRA
Dermatological Exam Skin and nail findings could indicate a dermatological problem or disease somewhere else in the body. Check for acne, skin discoloration, rashes, etc.
Musculoskeletal Exam A 2 minute musculoskeletal exam can be performed to check range of motion of the body. This is especially important for sports physicals.